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in the cases of Croker and Brougham. But his integrity, moral courage, and kindness of heart were unrivalled. In society he was delightful, and not intentionally overbearing, though his torrents of talk must have been occasionally oppressive. He was a warm friend, though he had few intimates except Thomas Flower Ellis [q. v.]; generous, almost to excess, in money matters; yet an excellent and prudent man of business; an exemplary master to his servants; and, above all, the light of his domestic circle. He was a perfect brother and uncle; he was never tired of playing with children and encouraging the development of their minds; and his affection has been repaid by one of the best biographies in the language. The absence of any trace of love affairs in the life of so true-hearted and masculine a nature is unexplained, but perhaps characteristic of a man whose affections were stronger than his passions, and who through life devoted himself with unwearying self-control to ambitions not unworthy of the complete absorption of his faculties.

Macaulay's works have been republished in a variety of forms. The first editions are: 1. ‘Pompeii’ (prize poem), 1819. 2. ‘Evening’ (prize poem), 1821. 3. ‘Lays of Ancient Rome,’ 1842. ‘Ivry,’ first published in Knight's ‘Quarterly Magazine,’ and ‘The Armada,’ first published in ‘Friendship's Offering’ in 1833, were added in 1848. 4. ‘Critical and Historical Essays contributed to the Edinburgh Review,’ 1843. (The essays appeared as follows: (1) ‘Milton,’ August 1825; (2) ‘Machiavelli,’ March 1827; (3) Hallam's ‘Constitutional History,’ September 1828; (4) Southey's ‘Colloquies,’ January 1830; (5) ‘Robert Montgomery's Poems,’ April 1830; (6) ‘Civil Disabilities of the Jews,’ January 1831; (7) ‘Byron,’ June 1831; (8) Croker's ‘Boswell,’ September 1831; (9) Bunyan's ‘Pilgrim's Progress,’ December 1831; (10) ‘Hampden,’ December 1831; (11) ‘Burleigh,’ April 1832; (12) ‘War of the Succession in Spain,’ January 1833; (13) ‘Horace Walpole,’ October 1833; (14) ‘Lord Chatham,’ January 1834; (15) Mackintosh's ‘History of the Revolution,’ July 1835; (16) ‘Bacon,’ July 1837; (17) ‘Sir William Temple,’ October 1838; (18) ‘Gladstone on Church and State,’ April 1839; (19) ‘Clive,’ January 1840; (20) Ranke's ‘History of the Popes,’ October 1840; (21) ‘Comic Dramatists,’ January 1841; (22) ‘Lord Holland,’ July 1841; (23) ‘Warren Hastings,’ October 1841; (24) ‘Frederick the Great,’ April 1842; (25) ‘Madame d'Arblay,’ January 1843; (26) ‘Addison,’ July 1843; (27) ‘Lord Chatham’ (second article), October 1844.) 5. ‘History of England,’ vols. i. and ii. 1849; vols. iii. and iv. appeared in 1855, and vol. v., edited by Lady Trevelyan, in 1861. An edition in 8 vols. (1858–62) includes a life by Dean Milman, prefixed to vol. viii., which is also prefixed to the ‘People's Edition’ in 4 vols. 8vo, 1863–4. 6. ‘Inaugural Address’ (as Lord Rector of Glasgow), 1849. 7. ‘Speeches Corrected by Himself,’ 1854 (an unauthorised edition had been published by Vizetelly in 1853). 8. ‘Miscellaneous Writings,’ 2 vols. 8vo, 1860, edited by T. F. E(llis). This includes his contributions to Knight's ‘Quarterly Magazine,’ some poems, lives of Atterbury, Bunyan, Goldsmith, Johnson, and Pitt, contributed to the 8th edit. of the ‘Encyclopædia Britannica’ (published separately), and the following previously uncollected articles in the ‘Edinburgh Review:’ (1) ‘Dryden,’ January 1828; (2) ‘History,’ May 1828; (3) ‘Mill on Government,’ March 1829; (4) ‘Westminster Reviewer's Defence of Mill,’ June 1829; (5) ‘Utilitarian Theory of Government,’ October 1829; (6) Sadler's ‘Law of Population,’ July 1830; (7) Sadler's ‘Refutation Refuted,’ January 1831; (8) ‘Mirabeau,’ July 1832; (9) ‘Barère,’ April 1844.

The complete works, edited by Lady Trevelyan, appeared in 8 vols. 8vo, 1866.

[The chief authority is Sir G. O. Trevelyan's Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay (2 vols. 8vo, 1876), here cited from popular edition. (Cf. new edit. 1908, and Marginal Notes by Lord Macaulay, ed. Trevelyan, 1907.) See also The Public Life of Lord Macaulay, by Frederick Arnold, 1862, with extracts from newspapers; Milman's Life (as above); Macvey Napier's Correspondence, 1879, for many letters; John Moultrie's Poems (1876), i. 421–3, for college career; Greville's Journals (George IV and William IV. 1874), ii. 199, 245–6, iii. 35, 337–8 (Victoria, 1885), i. 121, ii. 69, 70; Moore's Diaries, vi. 215, vii. 280, 283, 284.]

L. S.

MACAULAY, ZACHARY (1768–1838), philanthropist, born 2 May 1768, was son of John Macaulay by his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Colin Campbell of Inveresragan, Argyllshire. John Macaulay, eldest son of Angus Macaulay, was minister successively of South Uist (1746), Lismore (1756), Inverary (1765), and Cardross (1775), and died 30 March 1789. He is mentioned in Boswell's account of Johnson's ‘Tour to the Hebrides in 1773.’ He had twelve children by his second wife, of whom the eldest was Aulay [q. v.] Colin (1760–1836), another son, entered the Indian army, was present at Seringapatam, shared Sir David Baird's imprisonment by Hyder Ali, was M.P. for Saltash from 1828 to 1830, was promoted major-