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accordingly refused to permit Charles II to come to Dunkirk, stating that he ‘was trusted by the Commonwealth and could not betray it’ (ib.) He also, according to Clarendon, ‘refused to accept the great offers made to him by the cardinal, who had a high esteem of him, and offered to make him marshal of France, with great appointment of pensions and other emoluments if he would deliver Dunkirk and Mardyke into the hands of France’ (Hist. iii. 979–80).

After the Restoration Lockhart was deprived of the government of Dunkirk, but through the intercession of Middleton he was not further molested. He lived for some years in retirement on his Scottish estate, but finding that his former relations with Cromwell rendered him an object of suspicion to his neighbours, he took up his residence with his wife's relations in Huntingdonshire. In 1671 he was brought to court by Lauderdale, and through his influence was sent to the courts of Brandenburg and Lunenburg to secure their neutrality or co-operation on the formation of the alliance of France against Holland. Lockhart, according to Burnet, undertook the mission not ‘so much out of any ambition to rise as from a desire to be safe’ (Own Time, p. 203), and ‘became very uneasy’ when he discerned the true character of the negotiations in which he was engaged (ib.) Afterwards he was reappointed to the embassy in France (a synopsis of his letters from Paris from March 1673–4 to May 1675 is given in Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. pp. 237–42). According to Noble, his death, which took place 20 March 1675–6, was due to poison from a pair of gloves, but Burnet states that he had, some time previous to his death, fallen into ‘languishing,’ chiefly induced by distaste for his duties as ambassador.

By his first wife, Margaret, daughter of John Hamilton of Ormiston, senator of the College of Justice, he had a son, James, who died unmarried. By his second wife, Robina Sewster, he had five sons—Cromwell, who succeeded his father, but died without issue; Julius, killed at Tangier; Richard and John, who were successively inheritors of Lee, but died without issue; and James, who ultimately succeeded, and carried on the line of the family—and two daughters, Martha, maid of honour to Mary, afterwards wife of William of Orange, and Robina, married to Archibald, earl of Forfar.

[Thurloe State Papers; Cal. Clarendon State Papers; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. during the Commonwealth; Clarendon's Hist. of the Rebellion; Burnet's Own Time; Noble's House of Cromwell, ii. 233–73; Douglas's Baronage of Scotland, pp. 326–7; Burton's Scot Abroad; Gardiner's Great Civil War; Jules Borelly's Cromwell et Mazarin, 1886.]

T. F. H.

LOCKHART, WILLIAM (1820–1892), Roman catholic divine, son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart (d. 1831) of Wallingham, Surrey (vicar of Stone, Buckinghamshire, from 1821 to 1830), and great-grandson of Alexander Lockhart, lord Covington, was born in 1820; matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford, on 17 May 1838, and graduated B.A. in 1842. Becoming an ardent follower of John Henry Newman [q. v.], he joined the latter at Littlemore immediately after taking his degree. His faith in anglicanism was already shaken, and his inclination to Rome was strengthened by the reading of Milner's ‘End of Controversy,’ and was confirmed by the dubitancy which he detected in Newman. He was received into the Roman communion in August 1843. He was the first of the Tractarians who went over, and his secession powerfully affected Newman, who almost immediately afterwards preached his last anglican sermon at Littlemore, on ‘The Parting of Friends,’ though he did not overtly follow Lockhart's example until two years later.

Shortly after his conversion Lockhart went to Rome, where he studied under the Rosminians, and in 1845 entered the Order of Charity—an organisation originally founded by Rosmini himself, of which Father Gentili, whom he had met first in W. G. Ward's rooms at Oxford and afterwards at Littlemore, was at that time head. Lockhart subsequently became procurator-general of the order. For the last few years of his life he was rector of St. Etheldreda's, Ely Place, Holborn, London, which he had brought out of chancery, and restored to the worship of his church. He generally wintered in Rome, and was frequently consulted on English affairs by the pope, but his diffidence and that lack of initiative which rendered him so greatly dependent on others, first on Newman, then on Rosmini, prevented him from obtaining high preferment in his church. He died at St. Etheldreda's on 15 May 1892.

While at Littlemore the task of translating a portion of Fleury's ‘History of the Church,’ and of compiling a life of St. Gilbert of Sempringham, was assigned by Newman to Lockhart; but he is best known as a prominent English disciple of Rosmini, and the translator of many of his ideas into English. He edited in 1856 a brief ‘Outline of the Life of Rosmini,’ and wrote in 1886 the second volume of a voluminous ‘Life of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati,’ of which the first volume