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culture pratique des differentes parties de l'Angleterre,' translated from the English, 5 vols. Paris, 1803, and reissued under the title of 'La Maison rustique anglaise.' In the 'Rural Economy of the Midland Counties' Marshall proposed the establishment of a 'Board of Agriculture, or more generally of Rural Affairs,' and his proposal was carried into effect by parliament in 1793. Afterwards his plan of provisional surveys was adopted by the board, and he was urged to take a part in it, but he preferred continuing his own 'General Survey, which was completed in 12 vols. 1798, 8vo. He had previously published a 'General View of the Agriculture of the Central Highlands of Scotland,' 1794; 'A Review of the Landscape, a didactic poem,' 1795; and 'Planting and Rural Ornament,' 2 vols. 1796 (3rd edit, 1803). These were followed by a work 'On the Appropriation and Inclosure of Commonable and Intermixed Lands: with the heads of a Bill for that purpose: together with remarks on the outline of a Bill by a Committee of the House of Lords for the same purpose,' London, 1801, 8vo: and another 'On the Landed Property of England, an elementary and practical Treatise: containing the Purchase, the Improvement, and the Management of Landed Estates,' London, 1804, 4to. An abstract of the latter work appeared in 1806.

In 1808 Marshall retired to his native vale of Cleveland, Yorkshire, where he purchased a large estate. The latter years of his life were devoted to the composition of 'A Review and Complete Abstract of the Reports to the Board of Agriculture on the several Counties of England,' afterwards published in a collected form, 5 vols. Lomdon, 1817, 8vo. In 1799 he had published 'Proposals for a Rural Institute,. or College of Agriculture, and the other Branches of Rural Economy.' He was raising a building at Pickering for the purpose when he died (18 Sept. 1818). His monument in Pickering Church states that 'he was indefatigable in the study of rural economy,' and that 'he was an excellent mechanic, and had a considerable knowledge of most branches of science, particularly of philology, botany, and chemistry.'

Marshall was the first to form a collection of words peculiar to the Yorkshire dialect. The vocabulary appended to the 'Economy of Yorkshire' contains about eleven hundred words (Robinson, Hist. of Whitby, p. 241). Donaldson says that Marshall's agricultural writings are very valuable, and that as 'a rational observer and practical compiler he was decidedly superior' to Arthur Young (Agricultural Biography, p. 64).

[Biog. Dict. of Living Authors, 1816; Eastmeads Hist. Rievallensis, p. 285; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1484; McCulloch's Lit. of Pol. Economy, p. 218; Midland's Biog. Univ. xxvii. 77; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 63; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 484, iv. 17; Nouvelle Biog. Univ.; Robinson's Glossary of Yorkshire Words, Preface; Watt's Bibl. Brit.]

T. C.

MARSHALL, WILLIAM (1748–1833), violinist and composer, was born at Fochabers, Morayshire, on 27 Dec. 1748. For several years he occupied the position of house-steward and butler to the Duke of Richmond and Gordon, who in 1790 appointed him factor on his estate. From that year till 1817 Marshall lived on a farm of his own at Keithmore. He died at Newfield on 29 May 1833.

He published ‘Marshall's Scottish Airs, Melodies, Strathspeys, Reels, &c., for Pianoforte, Violin, and Violoncello,’ Edinburgh, 1821, second edition 1822; and a collection of strathspeys and reels, with a bass for violoncello or harpsichord. A second collection of Scottish melodies, reels, and strathspeys for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello was published posthumously in 1847. Several of his songs, of which ‘Of a' the airts the wind can blaw’ was the most popular, were Scottish dance tunes adapted to poetry. He is said to have ‘played his airs to the delight of all who ever heard him.’

[Brown's Biog. Dict. of Music, p. 415; Irving's Book of Scotsmen, p. 336; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Music.]

R. F. S.

MARSHALL, WILLIAM (1806–1875), organist and musical composer, son of William Marshall, a musicseller of Oxford, was born in that city in 1800. He gained his musical education as chorister of the Chapel Royal under John Stafford Smith and William Hawes. In 1825 he was appointed organist to Christ Church and St. John's College, Oxford, and also for some time officiated as organist at the church of All Saints. He took the degree of Mus. Bac. on 7 Dec. 1820, and that of Mus. Doc. on 14 Jan. 1840.

At the instance of his friend, Dr. Claughton, then professor of poetry at Oxford, and for a long .period vicar of the parish church of Kidderminster, Marshall was induced in 1846 to resign his Oxford post in favour of that of organist and choir-master to St. Mary's, Kidderminster. In that town, which became his headquarters for the rest of his life, he devoted his spare time to giving instruction in music. He is spoken of as a fine organist, and as being specially admirable as a teacher and conductor. On various occasions he con-