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183, 473; Hacket's Scrinia Reserata, pt. i. p. 67; Returns of Members of Parliament (Official); Cal. State Papers, Dom. Addenda, 1580–1625 p. 621, Dom. 1603–1610 p. 496, 1627–8 p. 377, 1628–9 p. 122, 1631–3 p. 6, 1633–4 p. 326, 1636–7 p. 158, 1637 pp. 109, 410, 1638–9 p. 32, 1641–3 pp. 92, 126, Colon. East. Indies, 1617–21 pp, 219, 233, 1623–4 pp. 405, 410–11, 413; Lysons's Mag. Brit. i. 314; Ashmole's Berkshire, p. 160; Stow's Survey of London, ed. Strype, 1754, ii. 39–40; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. pp. 12, 103, 13th Rep. pt. iv.; Godwin, De Præsul. p. 195; Rymer's Fœdera (Sanderson), xvi. 772; Issues of the Exch., ed. Devon, p. 161; Commons' Debates, 1625 (Camd. Soc.); Eliot's Negotium Posterorum, ed. Grosart; Camden Miscellany (Camd. Soc.), ii. Disc. Jes. Coll.; Rushworth's Hist. Coll. i. 521, 579 et seq. 617, ii. 112; Whitelocke's Memorials, pp. 10, 14; Comm. Journ. i. 851–7; Lords' Journ. iv. 291, 293, 326, 335, 361–2; Parl. Hist. ii. 255, 366, 419, 473; Harl. MSS. 1721 f. 453, 2305 f. 255 b, 4777 ff. 54 b, 97, 158, 168, 174, 188 b, 6800 ff. 98, 325; Cobbett's State Trials, ii. 1452, iii. 495; Laud's Diary, 21 Dec. 1640; Cardwell's Synodale, i. 380 et seq.; Clarendon's Rebellion, ed. 1849, bk. i. § 11, bk. iii. § 70; Clarendon's Life, ed. 1827, i. 87; Hook's Archbishops of Canterbury, v. 283; Gardiner's Hist. of Engl. vol. v.]

J. M. R.

MARTEN, HENRY or HARRY (1602–1680), regicide, elder son of Sir Henry Marten [q. v.] by his first wife, was born at Oxford in 1602 (Wood, Athenæ Oxon' iii. 1237). After being ' instructed in grammar learning in Oxon, he became a gentleman-commoner of University College,' matriculating on 31 Oct. 1617 (Wood; Clark, Register of the University of Oxford, ii. 364). He obtained the degree of B.A. in 1619, was admitted to Gray's Inn on 10 Aug. 1618, and then travelled for some time in France (Foster, Gray's Inn Register, p. 142). 'At his return, his father found out a rich wife for him, whom he married, something unwillingly ' (Aubrey). Her name was Margaret, widow of William Staunton (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1636-7, p. 274). The marriage proved unhappy. ' He was a great lover of pretty girls, to whom he was so liberal that he spent the greatest part of his estate' (Aubrey). As early as 1639 he is described as costing his father 1,000l. per annum (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1638-9, p. 590). In 1639 Marten made his first appearance in politics by declining to contribute to the general loan raised for the Scottish war (Rushworth, iii. 912). This act made him popular, and in April 1640, and again in the following November, he was returned to parliament as one of the members for Berkshire. According to Aubrey, Marten's zeal for the popular cause was further stimulated by an insult which he had received from the king, who publicly termed him 'an ugly rascal' and a 'whore-master,' and ordered him to be turned out of Hyde Park. In parliament he was from the first conspicuous as one of the most extreme members of the popular party. To his friend Hyde Marten privately confessed that he thought some of the popular leaders knaves, 'and that when they had done as much as they intended to do, they should be used as they had used others. The other pressed him then to say what he desired ; to which, after a little pause, he very roundly answered, "I do not think one man wise enough to govern us all" ' (Clarendon, Life, i. § 91). Marten showed great zeal against Strafford, and was one of the spokesmen of the section eager to proceed against the earl by bill of attainder instead of impeachment (Sanford, Studies and Illustrations of the Great Rebellion, pp. 337, 339, 341). He also delivered speeches in favour of the protestation, and in support of the theory that the ordinances of parliament were valid without the king's assent (Verney, Notes of the Long Parliament, pp. 67, 162; Gardiner, History of England, ix. 301 , 353). When the committee of safety was constituted, Marten was one of the ten commoners appointed, and reported to parliament the resolution of the committee, asserting that the king intended to levy war against the parliament, and recommending the raising of an army of ten thousand men (Sanford, pp. 496, 497). Charles, in his declaration of 12 Aug. 1642, complained that 'it hath been publicly said by Marten that our office is forfeitable, and that the happiness of the kingdom doth not depend upon us, nor any of the regal branches of that stock.' He went on to demand that Marten should be delivered up to stand his trial for high treason, and excepted him from pardon Husbands, Votes and Ordinances, 4to, 1643, p. 660).

When war broke out Marten subscribed 1,200l. to the parliamentary cause, and undertook to raise a regiment of horse. Parliament appointed him governor of Reading, which he evacuated with some haste when the king's army came to Oxford (Clarendon, Rebellion, vi. § 125). The chief theatre of his exploits was the House of Commons. Though a member of the committee of safety himself, he was a severe critic of its actions, and shared the jealousy with which the house regarded the authority the committee claimed. 'A pint pot,' once observed Marten, 'could not hold a pottle of liquor, nor could they be capable to despatch so much business as was committed to them'