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Oliver
Oliver
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command off Cadiz, expressed his concern that his ship was not able to accompany him. 'I hope,' answered Nelson, 'you will come in time to tow some of the rascals.' The Melpomene joined the fleet off Trafalgar the day after the battle, and did help to tow off the prizes. Oliver was appointed to the Mara, vacant by the death of Captain Duff, which he commanded on the coast of France till September 1806. In May 1810 he commissioned the Valiant, in which, in 1813-14, he took part in the operations on the coast of the United States. He resigned the command In July 1814, and had no further service, though promoted in regular succession to be rear-admiral 12 Aug. 1819, vice-admiral 22 July 1830, admiral 23 Nov. 1841. He died at his residence, near Dublin, on 1 Sept. 1850. Oliver married, in 1806, Mary, daughter of Sir Charles Saxton, bart., far many years resident commissioner of the navy at Portsmouth, and by her had a large family.

[Marshall's Roy. Nar. Biogr. i. 725; O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Dict.; Gent. Mag. 1850, ii. 547; Return of Services in the Public Record Office.]

J. K. L.

OLIVER or OLYUER, THOMAS (d. 1624), physician and mathematician, is said to have been educated at Cambridge. He certainly published his chief book at the university press, but his name does not figure In the university register, and no details respecting his connection with the university are accessible. Before 1597 he was settled at Bury St. Edmunds as a physician, and usually described himself as 'Buriensis Philiatros.' He practised his profession at Bury St. Edmunds until his death in 1624.

Oliver was a mathematician as well as a physician, and wrote learnedly in both capacities. In 1601 he published 'A New Handling of the Planisphere, divided into three sections … pleasant and profitable generally for all men, but especially such as would get handines in using the ruler and compasse, and desire to reape the fruits of astronomicall and geographicall documents without being at the charge of costly instruments. Invented for the most part, and first published in English, by Thomas Olyver,' London, by Felix Kyngston for Simon Waterson and Rafe Iacson, 1601, 4to. In a dedication dated from Bury St. Edmunds 6 Jan. 1600-1, and addressed to Sir John Peter of Thorndon, Essex, he acknowledges obligations to 'Clauius his Astrolabe.' Many diagrams appear in the text.

In 1604 Oliver published at the press of John Legate [q. v.] at Cambridge four separate tracts bound in a single volume, and usually known by the title of the first tract: 'De Sophismatum Præstigiis cavendis Admonitio,' dedicated to Henry Howard, earl of Northampton, from Bury, 23 Nov. 1603. This tract is succeeded by 'De Rectarum Linearum Parallelismo et Concursu Doctrina Geometrica,' dedicated to Lancelot Browne [q. v.], 'archiatro doctissimo,' and by 'De Missione Sanguinis in Pueris ante annum decimum quartum Diatribe medica,' dedicated to William Butler (1536–1618) [q. v.], 'medico et philosopho præstantiesimo amico suo charissimo Cantabrigiam.' The book concludes with 'De Circuli Quadratura Thesis logica,' dedicated to 'Adriano Romano equiti aurato in Academia Wurceburgensi Mathematicorum professori celeberrimo nunc medico Cæsareo,' 27 Aug. 1697. In Addit. MS. 4626 (art. 23 or 24) are two unpublished tracts by Oliver, respectively entitled 'Thomæ Oliveri Buriensis Tabula Longitudinum et latitudinum locorum memorabilium in Europa,' and 'Mechanica Circuli quadratura cum equatione cubi et sphæeræ.'

[Davy's Athenæ Suffolcenses in Addit. MS. 19165, f. 257; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 510; Oliver's Works.]

S. L.

OLIVER, THOMAS (1725-1799), methodist preacher. [See Olivers.]

OLIVER, THOMAS (1734–1815), lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts, said to have been born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, on 5 Jan. 1734, was son of Robert Oliver by Ann, daughter of James Brown of Antigua. His father was living in Antigua in 1738, but had settled at Dorchester before 1747. Thomas graduated at Harvard in 1753. He probably resided at Dorchester until 1766, when he purchased an estate on Elmwood Avenue, near Mount Auburn, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and erected the mansion afterwards the residence successively of Governor Gerry, the Rev. Dr. Lowell, and James Russell Lowell. Being a man of fortune, he was not actively engaged in business, nor did he take much part in public affairs until March 1774, when he accepted the office of lieutenant-governor of the province and president of a council appointed by the king in a manner especially galling to popular feeling. The councillors were visited by bands of Middlesex freeholders, and one after another forced to renounce their offices. On the seizure by the royal troops of the public stock of powder provided for the militia, the yeomen of the neighbouring towns marched to Cambridge, some of them bringing arms. General Gage