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timidated into giving his opinion against the prisoner. Sentence of death was nevertheless passed. An attempt to bribe Orr's gaoler failed; but a short respite was granted, and Orr's brother obtained, on the representation that he had confessed his guilt, several influential signatures to a petition for pardon. Orr apparently signed a confession. But his brother afterwards declared that he himself concocted it without the prisoner's knowledge, and Orr strenuously denied responsibility for it. Orr's mind seems to have been slightly affected at the close, but he met his death courageously on 14 Oct. 1797 at Carrickfergus. The popular excitement rose very high after the execution. ‘Remember Orr’ became a watchword, and was chalked on the walls in many places. At a public dinner held in London to celebrate Fox's birthday, the Duke of Norfolk, Lord Oxford, Erskine, Sir F. Burdett, Horne Tooke, and others, being present, two of the toasts were: ‘The memory of Orr, basely murdered,’ and ‘May the execution of Orr provide places for the cabinet of St. James' at the Castle.’ The watchword formed the conclusion of the document which brought the brothers Sheares [see Sheares, Henry] to the scaffold; and Dr. Drennan's vigorous poem on the subject was, and is still, one of the most popular of Irish patriotic effusions.

A son of Orr, a major in the army, served with distinction in the Peninsular war. On his desiring to be relieved of his commission, the Duke of York asked whether he was a son of William Orr, to which he replied: ‘I have that honour.’ The duke generously sent the widow of Orr 1,000l., and made the son a barrack-master, first at Longford, and afterwards at Dublin.

[Fitzpatrick's Secret Service under Pitt, pp. 390–91; Lecky's Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, iv. 83, 104 et seq.; Madden, ii. 253, &c.; Life of Grattan, by his son; Curran's Speeches; McNevin's Trials.]

D. J. O'D.

ORRERY, Earls of. [See Boyle, Roger, first Earl, 1621–1679; Boyle, Charles, fourth Earl, 1676–1731; Boyle, John, fifth Earl, 1701–1762.]

ORRIDGE, BENJAMIN BROGDEN (1814–1870), antiquary, born in 1814, set up in business in London as a medical agent and valuer. From 1863 until 1869 he was an active member of the court of common council for the ward of Cheap. As chairman of the library committee he distinguished himself by his exertions for the preservation and investigation of the mass of records belonging to the corporation. He died after a long illness on 17 July 1870 at his residence, 33 St. John's Wood Park.

Orridge was fellow of the Geological Society, and member of the London and Middlesex Archæological Society. To the ‘Transactions’ of the latter he contributed some valuable papers, including the ‘City Friends of Shakespeare’ (iii. 578–80) and an ‘Account of some Eminent Members of the Mercers' Company,’ which was read at the general meeting held at Mercers' Hall on 21 April 1869.

He also published: 1. ‘A Letter on Eminent Londoners and Civic Records,’ 8vo, London, 1866, addressed to the court of common council. 2. ‘Some Account of the Citizens of London and their Rulers, from 1060 to 1867,’ 8vo, London, 1867, a very useful summary of the biography of the lord mayors, accompanied by pedigrees of the more distinguished of their descendants among the aristocracy. 3. ‘Some Particulars of Alderman Philip Malpas and Alderman Sir Thomas Cooke, K.B., Ancestors of Sir Francis Bacon (Lord Bacon) and Robert Cecil (first Earl of Salisbury),’ 8vo, London, 1868 (another edition, 4to, undated); originally read before the London and Middlesex Archæological Society on 20 April 1868, and printed in an abridged form in the ‘Transactions’ (iii. 285–306). 4. ‘Illustrations of Jack Cade's Rebellion, from Researches in the Guildhall Records; together with some newly found Letters of Lord Bacon,’ 4to, London, 1869.

[Trans. of London and Middlesex Archæolog. Soc. iv. 71; City Press, 23 July 1870; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. vi. 106; Cat. of Guildhall Library, 1889, p. 681.]

G. G.

ORTELIUS, ABRAHAM (1527–1598), map-maker, son of Leonard Ortels (1500–1537), was born at Antwerp 4 April 1527. His father, who had originally come from Augsburg, died when Abraham was young, and the care of his mother and sister fell to him. In 1547 he joined the guild of St. Luke at Antwerp as an illuminator of maps. He also dealt in the maps which he imported from other countries. Wood (Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 134) says that about 1551 he passed some time at Oxford for purposes of study. He travelled widely, became known to learned men in every country in Europe, carried on an active correspondence with his friends, and collected medals. In 1567 he and Christopher Plantin joined at Antwerp the society known as ‘the Family of Love’ [see Nicholas, Henry, or Niclaes, Henrick], but that was dissolved at the approach of Alva. Probably