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another ‘Life’ which passes under the name of Osbert, and is printed by Mabillon (sæc. v. 684–95), who thinks that Osbert lived about 1120; others suppose that Osbert was identical with Osbern; but seemingly this life is really the work of Eadmer (Hardy, i. 604). There is a sixteenth-century translation into English in Harleian MS. 537, ff. 9–25. 2. ‘Vita Sancti Alphegi et de Translatione Sancti Alphegi.’ This is printed in Mabillon, sæc. vi. 104–15; the Bollandists' ‘Acta Sanctorum,’ April, ii. 631–42; Wharton's ‘Anglia Sacra,’ ii. 127–47; Migne's ‘Patrologia,’ cxlix. 375–94; and Langebek's ‘Scriptores Rerum Danicarum,’ ii. 439. Eadmer says that the ‘Life’ was written by Lanfranc's order, not only in plain speech for reading, but also for singing with a musical accompaniment; Lanfranc directed it to be sung in church. The ‘Life’ of St. Alphege or Aelfheah is quoted by Eadmer (Memorials of St. Dunstan, p. 419) and William of Malmesbury (Gesta Pontificum, p. 33). Osbern says that he had his account of the translation of St. Alphege from Godric the dean, who had been one of Alphege's scholars (Mabillon, p. 113). 3. ‘Vita Sancti Odonis Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis.’ William of Malmesbury quotes Osbern's life of Odo (Gesta Pontificum, p. 24–5); it was in Cotton MS. Otho A. xii, which was destroyed in the fire of 1731. The life printed in Wharton's ‘Anglia Sacra,’ ii. 78–87, by Mabillon, sæc. v. 287–96, and in Migne's ‘Patrologia,’ cxxxiii. 931, is not Osbern's; it may be by Eadmer. The life of St. Bregwin in ‘Anglia Sacra,’ ii. 75–77, is incorrectly attributed to Osbern. The life of St. Edward the Confessor and the epistles attributed to Osbern really belong to Osbert de Clare [see Clare]. Osbern is alleged to have written two treatises, ‘De Re Musica’ and ‘De Vocum Consonantiis,’ which Fetis (Dict. des Musiciens, vii. 99) says exist in several manuscripts, a copy of the former being preserved at Christ's College, Cambridge.

[Stubbs's Memorials of St. Dunstan, Introduction, pp. xxxi–xxxii, xlii–xlviii, lxiii–lxvi, Rolls Ser.; Eadmer's Vita Anselmi, i. ch. 30; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, ii. viii; Oudin's Scriptores Ecclesiæ, ii. 757; Mabillon's Acta Sanctorum Ord. S. Benedicti, Venice edit.; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 563; Wright's Biogr. Brit. Litt. Anglo-Norman, pp. 26–7; Hardy's Descriptive Catalogue of British History, i. 597–600, 603–4, 609, 619–21.]

C. L. K.

OSBERN or OSBERT (d. 1103), bishop of Exeter and chancellor, was son of Osbern the seneschal, who was guardian of Normandy for the future Conqueror. He was thus brother of William Fitzosbern, the earl of Hereford [q. v.], and a kinsman of Edward the Confessor (Will. Malm. Gesta Pontificum, p. 201). He came to England during the reign of Edward, and was one of the king's chaplains, and held land at Stratton, Cornwall, at the time of Edward's death (Domesday, iv. 216). As a royal chaplain he was present at the dedication of Westminster Abbey on 28 Dec. 1065, and after the conquest witnessed a charter to St. Martin's, London, in 1068, as ‘Osbernus Capellanus’ (Mon. Angl. vi. 1325). A little later he seems to have become the king's chancellor, but the only authority for Osbern in this capacity is a charter to St. Augustine, Canterbury, which is attested by ‘signum Osberti Cancellarii.’ This Osbert is no doubt the future bishop, whose name appears both as Osbern and Osbert (cf. Domesday, iv. 8, 61; Mon. Angl. iv. 16, 17). Osbern probably resigned the chancellorship on his nomination to the bishopric of Exeter. He was consecrated at St. Paul's, London, on 28 March 1072, by Lanfranc. As bishop of Exeter he was present at the councils held at Windsor in 1072 and London in 1075 (Wilkins, Concilia, i. 325, 364). He had some dispute with the monks of St. Nicholas, Exeter, but was afterwards reconciled to them, and became one of their benefactors (ib. i. 378; Oliver, Monasticon, p. 113). William of Malmesbury says that Osbern followed the English in choice of food and in other respects, and preferred English to Norman customs. ‘After the manner of ancient prelates, he was content with old buildings,’ so that the earliest work at Exeter dates from the time of his successor. He was liberal in mind and chaste in deed. Osbern was blind for some years before his death; William of Warelwast, who eventually succeeded him, endeavoured to have him deprived of his bishopric on this score; but Osbern died before the scheme could take effect in the latter part of 1103.

[William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificum, (Rolls Ser.), pp. 201–2; Freeman's Norman Conquest, iv. 378; Oliver's Bishops of Exeter, pp. 11–14, and Monasticon; Foss's Judges of England, i. 43; Dugdale's Mon. Angl. i. 144, iii. 141, iv. 16, 17, vi. 1325.]

C. L. K.

OSBERN, CLAUDIANUS (fl. 1148), scholar, was a monk of Gloucester under Hamelin, who was abbot 1148–1179. Leland says he was the best Latinist of his time; that he had a knowledge of Greek, was an exact theologian and well versed in philosophy, and that his teaching was much praised in the monastery (De Script. Brit. No. 151). Gilbert Foliot [q. v.], writing as abbot of Gloucester to his ‘dear son’ Osbern,