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be rear-admiral of the red, and in February 1747–8 was appointed commander-in-chief on the Leeward Islands station. On 12 May 1748 he was promoted to be vice-admiral of the white, and on 24 Feb. 1757 to be admiral of the blue. In May 1757 he was appointed commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. In December he had intelligence that a strong French squadron, under the command of M. de la Clue, was leaving Toulon for America as a reinforcement to Louisbourg. To meet this, Osborn stationed himself to the eastward of the Straits, and De la Clue, finding it impossible to elude his vigilance, retired to Cartagena, which he had just entered when Osborn, with a very superior squadron, appeared outside, and there blockaded him for several weeks. In the end of February 1758 a squadron of three ships of the line, commanded by M. Duquesne in the Foudroyant, was sent from Toulon to endeavour to join De la Clue, and so render him strong enough to force his way out. On 28 Feb. they arrived off Cartagena, but were immediately seen and chased by superior forces. The three ships separated, but were closely followed up. One of them ran herself ashore, but was afterwards got off and joined De la Clue. The other two were captured [see Gardiner, Arthur], and Osborn, conceiving that the season was now too far advanced for the French to go to Louisbourg, drew back to Gibraltar, whence, in July, he returned to England in very bad health, consequent on a serious stroke of paralysis. For his conduct during the year he received the thanks of the House of Commons; but he was unable to accept any further service. He was promoted to be admiral of the white and vice-admiral of England on 4 Jan. 1763, with a pension of 1,200l., and died on 4 Feb. 1771.

Osborn is described by Charnock, who gathered such details from Captain William Locker [q.v.] and from Admiral Forbes, both of whom must have known Osborn well, as a man of a cold, saturnine disposition, scarcely ever making a friend, and in command austere, not always able to distinguish between tyranny and the exaction of due obedience, and probably as little attentive to the merit of others as any man who ever had the honour of holding a naval command.

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iv. 197; Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs; Minutes of the Court-Martial on Admiral Lestock, in the Public Record Office; Froude's Batailles Navales de la France, i. 348.]

J. K. L.

OSBORNE, PEREGRINE, second Duke of Leeds (1668–1729), born in 1658, vice-admiral, third son of Thomas Osborne, first duke of Leeds [q. v.], was on 6 Dec. 1674 created Viscount Osborne of Dunblane in the peerage of Scotland, and in 1689, on his father being made Marquis of Carmarthen, he became by courtesy Earl of Danby. On 9 March 1689-90 he was summoned to parliament as Baron Osborne of Kiveton. He was said to have served for some time on board a king's ship as a volunteer, probably also as a lieutenant, but there is no record of any such service. His first known connection with the navy is his appointment on 31 Dec. 1690 as colonel of the first regiment of marines, and two days later, 2 Jan. 1690-1, as captain of the Sutffolk, a 70-gun ship. From her he was transferred after a few weeks to the Resolution, which he commanded in the fleet under Russell during the summer. Early in 1692 he was appointed to the 90-gun ship Windsor Castle, in which he took part in the battle of Barfleur. Early in 1693 he fought a duel with a Captain Thomas Stringer, late of the first regiment of marines (Luttrell, Relation of State Affairs, iii. 3). The duel had no results, and did not even settle the quarrel; for more than a year later, 6 April 1694, the king sent an order to Danby to give his word and honour not to pursue it further under pain of being secured till further orders (Home Office Records, Secretary's Letter-Book 1691-9, f. 166). In 1693 he commanded the 100-gun ship Royal William, till, on the death of Sir John Ashby [q. v.] on 12 July, he was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral.

On 4 May 1694, his father being created Duke of Leeds, he became by courtesy Marquis of Carmarthen. He was at the time serving as rear-admiral of the blue squadron in the fleet under John, third lord Berkeley, and, as the junior, was placed in command of the squadron detached to cover the landing in Camaret Bay, which was attempted on 8 June. A preliminary investigation had shown him that the strength of the defences had been much underestimated, and, on his suggestion, the covering force had been largely increased, Carmarthen hoisting his flag, for the occasion, on board the Monck, a 60-gun ship. The batteries and entrenchments, however, proved still more formidable than even he had judged; one of his ships was sunk, and the others sustained severe damage, while the attempt to land was repulsed with great loss. In the following year Carmarthen was again appointed rear-admiral of the blue squadron under Berkeley; but in the summer, while Berkeley was bombarding St. Malo or Dunkirk, he was detached to cruise in the soundings for the protection of the homeward trade. By a grave error in judgment he mistook a number of merchant