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Institutiones Mechanicæ, et alia varia,' Oxford, 1677, 8vo.

[Information kindly supplied by the Rev. Canon Dundas, rector of Albury, Surrey; Aubrey's Memoir in Letters from the Bodleian, 1813, a very amusing sketch; Lloyd's Memoires; Allen's 'Liber' of Members of King's College (in manuscript at King's College); Rigaud's Correspondence of Scientific Men of the Seventeenth Century; Ball's Hist. of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.]

J. B. M.

OULD, Sir FIELDING (1710–1789), man-midwife, was son of a captain in the army, and was born at Galway in 1710. His mother was a Miss Shawe of Galway. He studied medicine in Paris (Preface to Midwifery, v. xvi), and about 1736 began practice in Golden Lane, Dublin, as a man-midwife. His practice became large, and in 1742 he published in Dublin 'A Treatise on Midwifery in three parts,' dedicated to the Dublin College of Physicians. The first part is on normal labour, the second on difficult labour of various kinds, and the third on obstetric operations. The book shows careful observation on a few points, but demonstrates that the author had not received a thorough medical education. It was attacked by Dr. Thomas Southwell in 'Remarks on some of the Errors, both in Anatomy and Practice, contained in a late Treatise on Midwifery,' Dublin, 1742, but was read by students of midwifery for many years, and gave a more exact account of the position of the child in natural labour than any work that had been published before. It added to Ould's reputation, and in 1759 he was appointed master of the lying-in hospital in Dublin. He was knighted by the lord-lieutenant, the Duke of Bedford, in the same year, and received the degree of M.B. from the university of Dublin. The College of Physicians in Dublin at first refused to grant him its license, as he was only a man-midwife, but afterwards yielded. He died in his house in Frederick Street, Dublin, 29 Nov. 1789, and was buried in St. Anne's Church.

[Dublin Journal of Medical Science, 1858; Cameron's History of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, 1886; Works.]

N. M.

OULTON, WALLEY CHAMBERLAIN (1770?–1820?), a native of Dublin, was educated there in a private school. While a schoolboy he achieved some reputation as a writer of farces and musical extravaganzas, and many of his dramatic essays were performed at the Dublin theatres in Smock Alley, Crow Street, Capel Street, and Fishamble Street. Most of these pieces were published. In 1784 there appeared the 'Haunted Castle,' the 'Happy Disguise, and the 'New Wonder;' in 1785 the 'Madhouse,' 'New Way to keep a Wife at Home,' 'Poor Maria,' the 'Recruiting Manager,' and 'Curiosity.' The 'Haunted Castle' and the 'Madhouse' are said to have held the stage for some years. About 1786 Oulton left Dublin while still a youth, to try his fortunes in London. Palmer, the lessee of the Royalty Theatre in Welldose Square, accepted the offer of his services, and in 1787 he produced Oulton's 'Hobson's Choice, or Thespis in Distress,' a satire on contemporary theatrical enterprise. Its boldness excited the resentment of the managers of the patent-houses, who were engaged in a fierce struggle with Palmer. But Oulton induced a lady of his acquaintance to offer in her name his next piece, 'As it should be,' to George Colman the younger of the Haymarket, where it was produced on 3 June 1789. The piece was published anonymously, but Colman soon discovered its author, and gave Oulton much encouragement. On 7 July 1792 he produced a trifle by Oulton, called ' All in Good Humour' (London, 1792, 8vo); there followed at the same house 'Irish Tar,' a musical piece, 24 Aug. 1797; 'The Sixty-third Letter,' a musical farce, 28 July 1802; 'The Sleep-walker, or which is the Lady P' 15 June 1812; and 'My Land-lady's Gown,' 10 Aug. 1816. Meanwhile, at Covent Garden, Oulton secured the production of two similar pieces, 'Perseverance,' 2 June 1789, and ' Botheration,' on 2 May 1798. Baker credits him with the choruses in Sheridan's 'Pizarro,' which was produced in 1799. Oulton was well acquainted with the work of Kotzebue on which Sheridan's play is based, and produced in 1800 a volume called 'The Beauties of Kotzebue.' In 1798 he provided two pantomimes, 'Pyramus and Thisbe' and the 'Two Apprentices,' for the Birmingham theatre. His latest connection with the stage was on 27 Feb. 1817, when his farce 'Frighten'd to Death' was produced at Drury Lane.

Oulton devoted much attention to other departments of literature. Between 2 Jan. and 26 Feb. 1787 he produced a tri-weekly sheet, called 'The Busybody,' on the model of 'The Spectator;' but at the twenty-fifth number the venture ceased. The whole was issued in two volumes in 1789 as 'The Busybody: a Collection of Periodical Essays, Moral, Whimsical, Comic, and Sentimental, by Mr. Oulton, Author of several Fugitive Pieces,' London, 12mo. In 1795 he published, under the pseudonym of 'George Home, D.D.,' two tracts attaching the pretensions of Richard