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and for the wagons used upon such a road in the collieries. Hence the term was readily applied to the planks or rails, to the line itself, and also, elliptically, to the vehicle running along the rails (see Surtees Soc. xxxviii. 37, where the word 'tram' occurs in a will dated 1655. It appears to be identical with the old Swedish 'tram,' a log or beam; cf. Notes and Queries, 6th ser. ii. 225, 356, 498; Skeat, Etymological Dict. 1884). About 1800 Outram founded the extensive Butterley ironworks in Derbyshire, but he died suddenly in London, on 22 May 1805, before the large outlay made upon the undertaking (which passed to Messrs. Jessopp & Co.) had proved remunerative. By his wife Margaret, only surviving daughter of James Anderson (1739-1808) [q. v.], whom he married on 4 June 1800, he left five children: Francis, Anna, James [q. v.], the celebrated general, Margaret, and Elizabeth. A fine-looking, high-spirited man, of a generous temper and restless energy which could ill brook either stupidity or opposition, Outram possessed many of the characteristics which were inherited by his more famous son.

[Goldsmid's Life of James Outram, 1880; Barker's Peerage and Baronetage; Smiles's Life of Stephenson, p. 69; Wood's Practical Treatise on Railways; Glover's Hist. and Gazetteer of the County of Derby, ii. 200; Brand's History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, ii. 681 n.; Whitney's Century Dictionary, s.v, 'Tram.']

T. S.

OUTRAM, Sir BENJAMIN FONSECA (1774–1856), naval surgeon, son of Captain William Outram, was born in Yorkshire in 1774 and educated as a surgeon at the United Borough hospitals in London. He was first employed in the naval medical service in 1794, and was promoted to the rank of surgeon in 1796. He served in the Harpy, La Nymphe, and Boadicea. He was surgeon in the Superb in her celebrated action off Cadiz, when Sir James Saumarez [q. v.] obtained a victory over the French and Spanish fleets on 12 July 1801. He received war medals and clasps for his services under Sir Richard Goodwin Keats [q. v.] during the war. Subsequently for many years he was surgeon to the Royal Sovereign yacht.

In 1806, with a view to entering upon civil practice, he went to Edinburgh, and there graduated doctor of medicine on 24 June 1809, after presenting his inaugural thesis, 'De Febre continuâ.' He was admitted a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of London on 16 April 1810, and then commenced practice as a physician at Hanover Square in London, where he lived more than forty years. He also acted as physician to the Welbeck Street Dispensary. On 3 May 1838 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London, but he was not the author of the geological paper published in the 'Transactions' of the society for 1796 with which his name is associated in the list of fellows. He also became one of the earliest members of the Royal Geographical Society.

In 1841 Outram became medical inspector of her Majesty's fleets and hospitals. He was nominated a K.C.B. on 17 Sept. 1850. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London on 9 July 1852. He died at Brighton on 16 Feb. 1856, and was buried at Clifton, near Bristol. He was twice married.

He was author of: 1. 'De Febre continuâ,' Edinburgh, 1809, dedicated to his uncle, Sir Thomas Outram of Kilham in Yorkshire. 2. 'Suggestions to Naval Surgeons previous to, during, and after a Battle,' a pamphlet of which no copy seems accessible.

[Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1806, i. 126; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 2nd edit. iii. 90; Gent. Mag. 1856, pt. i. p. 429.]

D’A. P.

OUTRAM, GEORGE (1805–1856), journalist, was second son of Joseph Outram (1771–1830), brother of Benjamin Outram [q. v.], by Elizabeth, daughter of George Knox, Craigleith. He was born on 25 March 1805 at the Clyde ironworks, near Glasgow, of which his father was manager, and was educated at the high school of Leith, whither his family removed in his boyhood. He studied at the university of Edinburgh, and in 1827 was admitted a member of the Scottish bar. Not being successful as an advocate, he readily accepted, in May 1837, the editorship of the 'Glasgow Herald' in succession to Samuel Hunter, and soon acquired a share as proprietor. The chief feature of his editorship was the reversal of the anti-corn-law policy of the 'Herald.' He continued his journalistic work till his death, on 15 Sept. 1856, at Rosemore on the Holy Loch. He was buried in Warriston cemetery, Edinburgh. Outram was an enthusiastic angler and a prominent member of the Edinburgh Angling Club. In 1837 he married Frances McRobbie from Jamaica, and had by her four sons and one daughter, of whom the last survivor died in 1887.

Outram's reputation rests on the 'Lyrics, Legal and Miscellaneous,' first printed privately, and afterwards edited in 1874 by Sheriff Bell, who prefaced it with a biographical sketch. A new edition, with additions and notes, by Dr. J. H. Stoddart, editor of the 'Glasgow Herald,' appeared in 1888.