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tive. Other Welsh princes were sent into Cadwgan's territories by Henry I to avenge the wrongs of his officer, and father and son were forced to go into hiding. Owain sailed across to Ireland and so sought refuge with his old protector, Muircheartach. Cadwgan was able in a little while to recover Ceredigion, but had to promise that he would have no dealings with his lawless son. Unfortunatunely, he had no control over Owain's movements. Before the end of the year the fugative had returned, and, finding the new prince of Powys, Madog ap Rhiryd, at odds with the Normans, entered into an alliance with him, Henry set another ruler over Powys in the person of Iorwerth ap Bleddyn [q. v.], whereupon Owain and Madog established themselves as freebooters, using Iorwerth's territory as a retreat. It was in vain that Iorwerth appealed to them to have some regard for his reputation ; they only quitted his territory when he gathered together a host against them. After devastating Meirionydd, Owain ventured once again into Ceredigion, and soon begun a course of border plunder at the expense of the men of Dyfed. The murder of a prominent Fleming, William of Brabant, by Owain and his men was reported to Henry as he was in conference with Cadwgan. Convinced that nothing could he made of Owain, the king now deprived Cadwgan of Ceredigion, which was given to Gilbert de Clare. Owain thereupon made his escape once more to Ireland. But in 1112 Iorwerth of Powys wos slain by Madog ap Rhiryd, the vacant lordship was given to Cadwgan, and Owain was forgiven. Madog, however, slew Cadwgan before Owain reappeared in Powys; he received a portion of the lordship from the crown authorities, but the greater part was given to Owain. In the following year Madog fell into the hands of Owain's captain of the guards, Maredudd ap Bleddyn [q. v.], and at Owain's command the captive was blinded and deprived of his lands.

Henry I's expedition of 1114 was largely directed against Owuin, who took refuge with Grunydd ap Cynan ; but the Welsh had not much difficulty in purchasing terms of peace, and when Henry crossed to Normandy in September, the prince of Powys was one of his retinue. He returned with the king in the following July, having in the meantime been knighted. So completely was he now restored to favour that in 1116 Henry entrusted to him the task of subduing the rebellious Oruffydd ap Rthys [q. v.], who was actively asserting his claim to the lordship of Deheubarth. Owain led a host into Ystrad Tywi, but, while ravaging with a small company near Carmarthen, was unexpectedly attacked by a Flemish army under Gerald of Windsor and killed.

Annuales Cambriæ; Bret y Tyeymogion, Oxfprd edit. pp. 280-302; Flor. Wig.]

J. E. L.

OWAIN GWYNEDD or Owain ap Gruffydd (d. 1169), king of Gwynedd or North Wales, was the eldeat son of Gruffydd ap Cynan [q. v.], king of Gwynedd, and his wife, gharad (d. 1162), daughter of Owain ap Edwin [q. v.] In 1121 he was sent by his father with a large army against Meirionydd. His brother Cadwaladr [see Cadwaladr, d. 1172] accompanied him on this expedition. They succeeded in transplanting many of the men of Meirionydd with their property in Lleyn (Brut y Tywysogion, p. 150). In 1186 a similar predatory expedition against Ceredigion was also conducted by the two brothers, in the course of which Aberyatwith Castle was burnt. At the end of the year the brothers led a second invasion of Cereiligion, and won a victory over 'the French and Flemings' at Aberteivt (Cardigan), whereupon they returned with great spoil and many prisoners to Gwynedd (ib. p. 160; cf. Annalles Cambriæ, p. 40, which gives the right date). In 1137 the death of Gruffydd ap Cynan gave Owain the succession to the throne of North Wales. He immediately led a third expedition to Ceredigion and, marching through the land until he reached the shores of the Bristol Channel, burnt Ystradmeurig, Llanstephan, and even Carmarthen itself. But he soon sought to make peace with his South-Welsh rivals, and promised to give his daughter in marriage to his nephew Anarawd, son of Gruffydd ap Rhys (d. 1137) [q. v.], the late prince of South Wales. But Cadwaladr, who had for his portion the former conquests made by him and Owain in Ceredigion, resented this alliance, killed Anarawd in 1143, and carried off his niece. Owain now sent his son Howel to take possession of Cadwaladr's lands. In 1144 Cadwaladr, who had fled to Ireland, appeared off the Menai Straits with a Fleet of Irish Dane. But Owain prudently reconciled himself with Cadwaladr, whereupon the pirates blinded their treacheroua ally. Owain fell upon the Danes, and drove them back to Dublin. But in 1140 Owain's sons were again attacking Cadwaladr, until he was forced to take refuge with the English.

The confusion which prevailed in England under the reign of Stephen gave Owain Gwynedd an unequalled opportunity for the extension and consolidation of his power.