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lished anonymously his ‘Observations on the Religion, Law, Government, and Manners of the Turks,’ London, 8vo, 2 vols. (‘Second Edition … To which is added the State of the Turkish Trade from its Origin to the Present Time,’ London, 1771, 8vo). Porter died in Great Marlborough Street, London, on 9 Dec. 1776, aged 66.

He married, in 1755, Clarissa Catherine, eldest daughter of Elbert, second baron de Hochepied (of the kingdom of Hungary), the Dutch ambassador at Constantinople, by whom he had five children, viz.: (1) John Elbert, who died an infant at Pera in 1756. (2) Anna Margaretta, born at Pera on 4 April 1758, who became the second wife of John Larpent [q. v.], and died on 4 March 1832. (3) George, born at Pera on 23 April 1760, a lieutenant-general in the army, who succeeded as sixth Baron de Hochepied in February 1819, and by royal license dated the 6th day of May following assumed the surname and arms of De Hochepied in lieu of Porter (London Gazette, 1819, pt. i. p. 842); by a further license, dated 5 Oct. 1819, he obtained permission for himself and his two nephews, John James and George Gerard, sons of his sister Anna Margaretta, to bear the title in England (ib. 1819, pt. ii. p. 1766). He represented Stockbridge in the House of Commons from February 1793 to February 1820. He married, on 1 Sept. 1802, Henrietta, widow of Richard, first earl Grosvenor, and daughter of Henry Vernon of Hilton Park, Staffordshire, and died on 25 March 1828, without leaving issue. (4) Sophia Albertini, who died unmarried. (5) Clarissa Catherine, born at Brussels in December 1764; she married, on 15 Jan. 1798, the Right Hon. James Trail, secretary of state for Ireland, and died at Clifton on 7 April 1833.

Sir William Jones speaks of Porter in the highest terms, and asserts that during his embassy at Constantinople ‘the interests of our mercantile body were never better secured, nor the honour of our nation better supported’ (Works, 1799, 4to, iv. 5). Three of Porter's letter-books are in the possession of Mr. George A. Aitken (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. pt. ix. pp. 334–42), and a number of his despatches are preserved in the Record Office (State Papers, Turkey, Bundles 35 to 43). He is said to have written a pamphlet against the partition of Poland, which was suppressed at the request of the government (Memoir, p. 11). He was the author of the following three papers, which were printed in the ‘Philosophical Transactions’ of the Royal Society: 1. ‘On the several Earthquakes felt at Constantinople’ (xlix. 115). 2. ‘New Astronomical and Physical Observations made in Asia,’ &c. (xlix. 251). 3. ‘Observations on the Transit of Venus made at Constantinople’ (lii. 226). His grandson, Sir George Gerard de Hochepied Larpent [q. v.], published in 1854 (2 vols.) ‘Turkey: its History and Progress, from the Journals and Correspondence of Sir James Porter … continued to the present time, with a Memoir.’ A portrait of Porter forms the frontispiece to the first volume.

[Authorities quoted in the text; Athenæum, 21 Oct. 1854, pp. 1259–60; Agnew's Protestant Exiles from France, 1886, i. 339–40, 394–5; Burke's Peerage, &c., 1894, pp. 830, 1558; Foster's Baronetage, 1881, p. 374; Gent. Mag. 1776 p. 579, 1798 pt. i. p. 83, 1802 pt. ii. p. 876, 1828 pt. i. pp. 188–9, 364, 1832 pt. i. p. 286, 1833, pt. i. p. 380; Ann. Reg. 1776, p. 230; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ii. 67, 114, vii. 128, 313, 8th ser. v. 387; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

G. F. R. B.

PORTER, JAMES (1753–1798), author of ‘Billy Bluff,’ son of Alexander Porter, was born in 1753 at Tamna Wood, near Ballindrait, co. Donegal. His father was a farmer and owner of a flax-scutching mill. James was the eldest of eight children. On his father's death (about 1773) he gave up the farm and mill to a younger brother, and engaged himself as a schoolmaster at Dromore, co. Down. In 1780 he married, and removed to a school at Drogheda. Designing to enter the presbyterian ministry, he went to Glasgow as a divinity student (apparently in 1784); and, having finished a two years' course, was licensed, in 1786 or 1787, by Bangor presbytery. After being an unsuccessful candidate for the presbyterian congregation of Ballindrait, he received, through the good offices of Robert Black, D.D. [q. v.], a call to Greyabbey (local pronunciation, Gryba), co. Down, where he was ordained by Bangor presbytery on 31 July 1787. No subscription was required of him, and the test questions, drawn up by Andrew Craig, were Arian in complexion. His professional income did not exceed 60l.; hence he supplemented his resources by farming. Having mechanical tastes, he fitted up a workshop, and constructed models of improved farming implements. By this and other means he did much to promote the physical wellbeing of his flock, to whom he was in all respects an assiduous pastor. He is said to have been an Arian, but there seems no evidence of his attachment to a special school of theology.

Porter had joined the volunteer movement which began in 1778, but took no prominent part in connection with it. He was not a United Irishman, nor was he publicly known