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June, and served for some years under the lord high admiral. He was knighted at the accession of Elizabeth, and in 1561 became governor of Portsmouth, where he died on 15 Feb. 1570–1. His daughter Anne married Sir George More [q. v.] of Losely. Of Sir Edward Poynings's daughters, Jane married Thomas, eighth lord Clinton, and became mother of Edward Fiennes Clinton, earl of Lincoln [q. v.]

[Letters and Papers of Henry VII, and Materials for the Reign of Henry VII (Rolls Ser.); Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Brewer and Gairdner; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. pt. i. passim; Cotton MSS. passim; Rolls of Parl.; Rymer's Fœdera, orig. edit. vols. xii. and xiii.; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner; Three Books of Polydore Vergil, Chron. of Calais and Rutland Papers (Camden Soc.); Hall, Fabyan, Grafton, and Holinshed's Chronicles; Bacon's Henry VII; Myles Davies's Athenæ Brit. ii. 60–1; Beltz's Memorials of the Garter; Gairdner's Richard III, p. 398, and Henry VII (English Statesmen Ser.); Lingard's Hist. of England; Brewer's Reign of Henry VIII; Busch's England under the Tudors, vol. i., which gives the best account of Henry VII's reign yet published; Sussex Archæol. Coll. vol. iv.; Norfolk Archæol. iv. 21, &c.; Archæol. Cantiana, v. 118, vii. 244, x. 257, 258, 264, xi. 394; Hasted's Kent, passim; Boys's Hist. of Sandwich; Burrows's Cinque Ports. For Poynings's Irish administration see Annals of the Four Masters; Book of Howth; Ware's Annales Hib.; Harris's Hibernica; Lascelles's Liber Munerum Hib.; Leland's Hist. of Ireland, 3 vols., 1773; Plowden's Hist. View; Cox's Hib. Angl., 2 vols., 1689–90; Smith and Ryland's Hist. of Waterford; Hist. of the Earls of Kildare; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland; Richey's Lectures on Irish Hist. to 1534; Froude's English in Ireland; Wright's History of Ireland, vol. i.; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors, vol. i. For Poynings's law see Irish Statutes; Hardiman's Statutes of Kilkenny; Davies's Hist. Tracts, ed. 1786; A Declaration setting forth how … the laws … of England … came to be of force in Ireland, 1643, attributed to Sir Richard Bolton [q. v.]; An Answer to the above by Samuel Mayart [q. v.]; Molyneux's Case of Ireland being bound, and the Replies to it [see under Molyneux, William]; Hallam's Const. Hist.; Lecky's Hist. of Ireland; Ball's Irish Legislative Systems.]

A. F. P.

POYNINGS or PONYNGS, MICHAEL de, second Baron Poynings (1317–1369), was eldest son of Thomas, first baron, by Agnes, daughter and coheiress of Richard de Rokesle. The family had been settled at Poynings, Sussex, as early as the reign of Stephen, and Michael's grandfather, Michael de Poynings (d. 1316), received a summons to parliament on 8 June 1294; but it was not renewed, and it does not appear that it can be regarded as constituting a regular summons to parliament (Nicolas, Historic Peerage, pp. 117–18, 389). His son Thomas was, however, summoned on 23 April 1337. The latter was one of the guardians of the sea-coast of Sussex on 1 April 1338, and on 22 June 1339 one of the witnesses to the treaty with Brabant (Fœdera, ii. 1025, 1083). He was killed in the assault of Hunycourt in Vermandois on 10 Oct. 1339 (Hemingburgh, i. 341), though it is commonly stated that he was killed in the sea-fight off Sluys on 24 June 1340 (Le Baker, ed. Thompson, p. 243; Barnes, Hist. Edward III, p. 183). He left three sons—Michael, Richard, and Luke. The last-named married Isabella, sister and coheiress of Edmund, lord St. John of Basing, and was summoned to parliament in 1368, probably in right of his wife, as Baron St. John.

Michael de Poynings was twenty-two years of age when he succeeded his father as second baron in 1339. He served in Flanders in 1339 and 1340, and on 4 Nov. 1341 was summoned for service in the Scots war (Fœdera, ii. 1181, 1184). On 4 Oct. 1342 he is mentioned as being with the king at Sandwich, when on his way to Brittany (ib. ii. 1212). He again served in France in 1345, and in 1346 took part in the campaign of Crécy (Barnes, Hist. Edward III, pp. 320, 354). In 1351, and again in 1352, he was one of the guardians of the sea-coast of Sussex (Fœdera, iii. 218, 245). He was employed in the French expedition of the king in 1355, and in the campaign of Poitiers in the following year. In August 1359, together with his brothers Richard and Luke, he joined in the great invasion of France, and was still abroad in April 1360 (ib. iii. 445, 483). On 22 June 1362 he was one of the signatories to the treaty with the king of Castile (ib. iii. 657). Poynings died on 15 March 1369. He had been summoned to parliament from 25 Feb. 1342. By his wife Joan, widow of Sir John de Molyns, who must be distinct from Sir John de Molines or Moleyns (d. 1365?) [q. v.] he had two sons—Thomas and Richard—and four daughters. Of the latter, Mary married Sir Arnold Savage [q. v.] Joan de Poynings died on 11 May 1369, and was buried with her husband at Poynings, where the existing church was erected in accordance with their wills.

Robert de Poynings, fifth Baron Poynings (1380–1446), Michael's grandson, and son of Richard de Poynings, fourth baron, was born on 30 Nov. 1380. He was summoned to parliament in 1404, is several times