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opened the Manchester 'temple' on 11 Aug. 1793, but soon falling out with Cowherd, who made a point of a vegetarian diet, he closed his Manchester ministry on 19 Jan. 1794. He was invited to Bristol and Liverpool, but returned to Birmingham, where a new 'temple,' also in Newhall Street, was opened by him on 30 March. Proud's services now attracted large crowds. His friends were anxious to transfer him to London. A 'temple' was built for him in Cross Street, Hatton Garden; he ordained his successor at Birmingham on 7 May 1797, and opened Hatton Garden 'temple' on 30 July.

Proud was now at the height of his popularity. His oratory drew overflowing congregations; his voice had much charm, in spite of a provincial accent, and his manner was singularly impressive. He is described as wearing 'a purple silk vest, a golden girdle, and a white linen gown' (White). In less than two years disputes arose between Proud's committee and the trustees of the 'temple' about the rental of the building and about a liturgy. Proud preached his last sermon at Cross Street on 29 Sept. 1799, and removed on 6 Oct. to York Street Chapel, St. James's, which was taken on lease. John Flaxman [q. v.] the sculptor, who had been a member of his committee, seceded from his congregation, owing to the dispute, which did not, however, affect Proud's general popularity. The lease of York Street chapel, renewed in 1806, came to an end on 22 Sept. 1813. Proud removed on 10 Oct. to a smaller building in Lisle Street, Leicester Square; but his vigour was declining. In 1814 he returned to Birmingham, and again ministered in the Newhall Street 'temple' till his retirement from regular duty at midsummer 1821. In 1815-16 he undertook missionary journeys, in pursuance of the plan of a missionary ministry adopted by the 'general conference' of the 'new church.'

He is said during the course of his life to have preached seven thousand times and written three thousand sermons. His personal character was high; he seems to have lacked geniality in private life, his manner was reserved, but he showed much fortitude under many domestic trials. He died in a cottage of his own building at Handsworth, near Birmingham, on 3 Aug. 1826, and was buried in St. George's churchyard, Birmingham. His funeral sermon was preached (20 Aug.) by Edward Madeley. He was first married on 3 Feb. 1769, and by his first wife, who died in 1785, he had eleven children, two of whom survived him. On her death he married a widow, Susannah, who died on 21 Nov. 1826, aged 76.

He published, besides many separate sermons: 1. 'Calvinism Exploded,' &c., Norwich, 1780, 12mo; two editions same year (a poem). 2. 'Jehovah's Mercy,' &c., 1789, 8vo (a poem); several times reprinted. 3. 'Hymns and Spiritual Songs,' 1790, 12mo; enlarged 1791, 12mo; 1798, 8vo (the book reached a sixth edition; 164 of his hymns are included in the 'new church' hymn-book of 1880). 4. 'A Candid . . . Reply to . . . Dr. Priestley,' &c., 1791, 8vo; 1792, 8vo. 5. 'Twenty Sermons,' &c., Birmingham, 1792, 8vo. 6. 'On the Lord's Prayer,' &c., 1803, 12mo. 7. 'Fifteen Discourses,' &c., 1804, 8vo. 8. 'The Unitarian Doctrine ... Refuted,' &c., 1806, 8vo (against Thomas Belsham [q. v.]) 9. 'Lectures on the Fundamental Doctrines of Christianity,' &c., 1808, 8vo; a second course, 1810, 8vo (includes poetical pieces). 10. 'Six Discourses to Young Persons,'&c., 1810, 12mo. 11. 'Hymns and Songs for Children,' &c., 1810, 12mo. 12. 'Calvinism without Modem Refinements,' &c., 1812, 12mo (a poem, anon.) 13. 'The Divinely Inspired Names of . . . Christ,' &c., 1817, 12mo. 14. 'The Aged Minister's Last Legacy,' &c., Birmingham, 1818, 12mo.; 2nd edition, abridged, with memoir by E. Madeley, 1854, 8vo. In 1799-1800 he was one of the editors of the 'Aurora,' a 'new church' monthly.

[Memoir by Madeley, 1854; Wood's Hist. of General Baptists, 1847, pp. 185, 205, 208; White's Swedenborg, 1867, ii. 605 seq.; Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, 1892. pp. 1105 seq.; Rutt's Memoirs of Priestley, 1832, ii. 91.]

A. G.

PROUT, Father (1804-1866), humourist. [See Mahony, Francis Sylvester.]

PROUT, JOHN (1810–1894), agriculturist, born 1 Oct. 1810 at South Petherwin, near Launceston, Cornwall, was the son of William Prout, farmer, who had married, in 1808, his cousin, Tomazin Prout. John was educated at a school in Launceston, and brought up to farming under his father; but, dissatisfied with the position of a tenant-farmer on the small holdings of his native land and with the antiquated restrictions of land tenure, he emigrated to Canada and purchased land at Pickering, Ontario, which he farmed from 1832 to 1842. He then returned to England, and joined his uncle, Thomas Prout, in his business at 229 Strand, London. On the death of his uncle, Prrout carried on the business. In 1861 he bought Blount's farm, Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire, which he cultivated till June 1894.

Prout had married, about 1841, Sophia (d.