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member of the cardinal's household, is the first authority for the facts. Both the original and the translation of this life will be found in Quirini's edition of Pole's Correspondence (Epistolre Reginaldi Poli ... et aliorum ad se, &c., 5 vols., Brescia, 1744-57), which is a most important source of information. Other documentary evidences will be found in the Calendars of State Papers, viz. that of Henry VIII, frequently cited in the text, and those of the Domestic Series (1547-80), the Foreign Series (Edward VI and Mary), the Spanish, and, most of all, the Venetian. A few notices also will be found in the Cal. of Dom. Addenda; Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation ; Strype's Eccles. Memorials ; Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Dodd's Church Hist. ; the Acts of the Privy Council; Vertot's Ambassades de Messieurs de Noailles ; Papiers d'Etat du Cardinal de Granvelle, vol. iv. (Documents Inedits) ; Sarpi's Hist. of the Council of Trent ; Pallavicino's Hist, of the same; Gratiani Vita J.F. Commendoni Cardinalis (Paris, 1669), Machyn's Diary, Chronicle of Queen Jane and Queen Mary, and Chronicle of the Grey Friars (all three Camd. Soc.) ; Hardy's Report on the Archives of Venice (in which, however, Bergenroth's communication, pp. 69-71, must be used with caution) ; Lettere del Re d' Inghilterra et del Card. Polo . . . sopra la reduttione di quel Regno alia . . . Chiesa (without date); Copia d' una lettera d' Inghilterra nella quale si narra 1'entrata del Rev. Cardinale Polo, Legato, Milan, 1554, reprinted (at Paris, I860?). Of modern biographies the most valuable even now, though by no means faultless, is the History of the Life of Reginald Pole, by Thomas Phillips, first published at Oxford in 1764, and a second edition (in which the author's name is suppressed), London, 1767 [see for replies art. Phillips, Thomas, 1708-1774]. The biography in Hook's Lives of the Archbishops is strangely prejudiced, and sometimes quite inaccurate. Even Bergenroth's very erroneous statements in his letter to Mr. (afterwards Sir Thomas) Duffus Hardy do not justify Dean Hook in his assertion (p. 230) that there is a letter at Simancas 'in which Pole had proposed himself as a suitor for the hand of Mary ' (see Hardy's Rpport above referred to, p. 70). The historical sketch entitled 'Reginald Pole' (lettered on the back of the volume 'The Life of Cardinal Pole'), by F. G. Lee, D.D., is not a life at all, but an essay on the beginning and end of his career. Of much greater value is Kardinal Pole, sein Leben und seine Schriften, oin Beitrag zur Kirchengeschichte des 16. Jahr-hunderts, by Athanasius Zimmermann, S. .T., Regensburg, 1893. This is not so full a biography as could be desired, but it is the most accurate hitherto published.]

J. G.


POLE, RICHARD de la (d. 1525), pretender to the crown, younger brother of Edmund Pole [q. v.] and of John Pole [q. v.], was fifth son of John, second duke of Suffolk [q. v.] Two other brothers, Humphrey and Edward, who were older than himself, took orders in the church, the latter becoming archdeacon of Richmond. In 1501 Richard escaped abroad with his brother Edmund. French writers, who apparently have confounded him with Perkin Warbeck, erroneously state that he entered the service of Charles VIII of France as early as 1492, the year in which Henry VII besieged Boulogne; that Henry, on the conclusion of peace, demanded his surrender; and that, though this was refused, he was compelled to quit France (Duchesne, Hist. d'Angleterre, p. 975, 2nd edit.). Others say, equally falsely, that King Charles gave him a pension of seven thousand écus. In the parliament which met in January 1504 he was attainted, along with Edmund and another brother, William. He is called in the act ‘Richard Pole, late of Wingfield in the county of Suffolk, squire,’ while his brother is designated William Pole of Wingfield, knight (Rolls of Parl. vi. 545).

In March 1504 he joined his brother Edmund at Aix-la-Chapelle, and was left there by Edmund as a hostage or security for the payment of Edmund's debts in the town. The latter's creditors, unable to obtain payment, rendered Richard's life unbearable, and threatened to deliver him up to Henry VII. Richard, however, managed to attract the sympathy of the munificent Erard de la Marck, bishop of Liège, who contrived to get him out of his perilous situation, and he arrived somewhat later in the year at Buda in Hungary. Henry VII sent ambassadors to Ladislaus VI to demand his surrender, but that king not only refused to deliver him, but gave him a pension (Cal. Venetian, vol. i. No. 889, and Cal. Henry VIII, vol. ii. No. 1163 II; cf. Ellis, Letters, 3rd ser. i. 141).

In 1509 Richard, like his two brothers Edmund and William, who were then in the Tower, was excepted from the general pardon granted at the accession of Henry VIII, and in 1512, when England and France were at war, Louis XII recognised him as king of England, giving him a pension of six thousand crowns. Towards the close of that year he commanded a body of German landsknechts in the unsuccessful invasion of Navarre, during which his company sustained more severe losses than any other. In this campaign he and the Chevalier Bayard were warm friends, and suffered great privations together (‘Chronique de Bayard,’ p. 102, in Buchon). In the spring of 1513, when his brother Edmund was put to death in England, he assumed the title of Duke of Suffolk, and became an avowed claimant of the crown of England. Though his pretensions were not