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on Conor at Spancel Hill, led people to anticipate a universal insurrection of the Irish. Nor did Sussex's detractors spare to insinuate that he was a main cause of the general dissatisfaction, charging him with breaking his word towards the Irish, and with putting to death those who had surrendered under protection, insinuations which he thought he could trace to Shane O'Neill (State Papers, Ireland, Eliz. ii. 21).

He arrived in Ireland in June, and found the country fairly tranquil. Shane O'Neill, however, when called upon to acknowledge the queen's authority, proved recalcitrant, and flatly refused even to meet Sussex unless hostages were given for his safety. Eventually he condescended to repair to Dundalk, but his terms were considered so preposterous that on 15 Aug. Elizabeth authorised his subjugation by force (cf. Cal. Carew MSS. i. 300-4). Shane, seeing Sussex to be in earnest, made a specious offer of submission. In January 1561 Sussex was summoned to London for consultation. Easter was spent at court, and on '1 June he returned to Dublin. Meanwhile Shane had practically established himself as master of almost the whole of Ulster. On 12 June the lord lieutenant marched to Armagh, which he fortified and garrisoned with two hundred men in the cathedral. But his efforts to bring Shane to a general engagement proved futile, and, after laying waste Tyrone, he was compelled to retire to Newry on 31 July. Exasperated at his ill-success, insulted by Shane's demand for an alliance with his sister the Lady Frances, and burning to avenge the aspersions cast by him, and reiterated by his enemies at home, on his government, he tried to bribe Shane's secretary, one Niall Gary or Gray, to assassinate his master, while holding out to Shane delusive proffers of his sister's hand. The attempt, if made at all, failed; but some rumour of Sussex's intention apparently reached Shane's ears.

Compelled to resort to more legitimate methods of warfare, Sussex, about the middle of August, led an unusually large force to Armagh. From Armagh he made a rapid march across Slieve Gullion to the edge of Glenconkein. He met with no opposition, and four thousand head of cattle, with a number of ponies and stud-mares, were captured. An attempt to penetrate into Tyrconnel was frustrated, owing to the loss or delay of victuals which were to have been sent round to Lough Foyle; he retired to Newry. Undeterred by his failure, he was engaged in preparations for another campaign when the Earl of Kildare arrived with a commission to treat with Shane. Sussex felt bitterly humiliated at being thus superseded (State Papers, Ireland, Eliz. iv. 62, 68). The upshot was a treaty whereby Shane promised to go to England and submit his case personally to the queen. Shane on his way through Dublin was entertained by Sussex, who likewise repaired to London on 16 Jan. 1562. He was no doubt present at Greenwich when Shane submitted to Elizabeth.

Quitting London shortly afterwards, he arrived in Dublin on 24 June. Shane's behaviour proved as lawless as before. Convinced that nothing but forcible measures would bring him to reason, Sussex addressed a long, important, and luminous memorial on the state of Ireland to Elizabeth (Cal. Carew MSS. i. 330, 344). The gist of his argument was that 'no government was to be allowed in Ireland where justice was not assisted with force.' The first thing to be done was to expel Shane, to divide Tyrone into three parts, to build a strong town at Armagh, and 'to continue there a martial president of English birth, a justice and council with one hundred English horsemen, three hundred English footmen, two hundred gallowglasses, and two hundred kerne in continual pay.'

Fitzwilliam was despatched to obtain Elizabeth's consent to his proposals, and in the meanwhile Sussex acted on the defensive, occupying himself in carrying out his instructions for the relief of the Pale and for completing the arrangements for the plantation of Leix and Offaly. As regards the former, he was obliged to confess (20 Aug.) that his scheme for the redemption of crown leases would not work. The plantation project proved more successful. A number of estates were made over that year to settlers of English origin, irrespective of religious creed, and, though many years had still to elapse and much blood to be shed on both sides before they could enjoy them peaceably, the credit of permanently extending the influence of the crown beyond the narrow limits within which it had been restrained for more than two centuries undoubtedly belongs to Sussex. But dispirited by his failure in other respects; annoyed by the persistent attacks of his enemies at court, especially by a scurrilous book (State Papers, Irel. Eliz. vi. 37) which he attributed to John Parker, master of the rolls, who had taken a prominent part in agitating the grievances of the Pale; and sick both in body and mind, he wrote, on 21 Sept., desiring to be released from his thankless office. Early in February 1563 Fitzwilliam returned, bearing the wel-