with a dedication to the parliament. 2. ‘Advice to his Son,’ London, 1632, two editions; 1636 (a collection of sensible, if somewhat worldly, maxims). 3. ‘The Prince, or Maxims of State, written by Sir Walter Rawley and presented to Prince Henry,’ London, 1642. 4. ‘To-day a Man, To-morrow None,’ London, 1644; containing the well-known letter to his wife. 5. ‘The Arraignement and Conviction of Sir Walter Rawleigh,’ with a few letters, 1648. 6. ‘Judicious and Select Essays and Observations upon the first Invention of Shipping, the Misery of Invasive War, the Navy Royal, and Sea Service, with his Apology for his Voyage to Guiana,’ London, 1650, and 1657. 7. A collection of tracts, including 1, 2, and 3 above, with his ‘Sceptick, an Apology for Doubt,’ ‘Observations concerning the Magnificency and Opulency of Cities,’ an apocryphal ‘Observations touching Trade and Commerce,’ and ‘Letters to divers persons of quality,’ published with full list of contents on title-page in place of any general title in 1651 and again in 1656 (with Vaughan's portrait); reissued in 1657, with the addition of ‘The Seat of Government,’ under the general title of ‘Remaines.’ 8. ‘The Cabinet Council, or the Chief Arts of Empire discabinated. By that ever-renowned knight Sir Walter Rawleigh,’ published by John Milton, 1658; reissued in same year as ‘Chief Arts of Empire’ (cf. Notes and Queries, 5th ser. iii. 302). 9. ‘Three Discourses: (i.) of a War with Spain; (ii.) of the Cause of War; (iii.) of Ecclesiastical Power;’ published by Philip Ralegh, his grandson, London, 1702. 10. ‘A Military Discourse, whether it would be better to give an invader battle or to temporise and defer the same,’ published by Nath. Booth of Gray's Inn, 1734. 11. ‘The Interest of England with regard to Foreign Alliances,’ on the proposed marriage alliances with Savoy, 1750.
‘A Relation of Cadiz Action in the year 1596,’ first printed in Cayley's ‘Life,’ 1805, chap. v., reappears, with many other previously unprinted pieces of smaller interest, including the metaphysical ‘Treatise of the Soul,’ in the only collective edition of Ralegh's works, Oxford, 1829, 8 vols. 8vo. ‘Choice Passages from the Writings and Letters of Sir Walter Raleigh’ was edited by the Rev. Dr. Grosart in 1892.
Some of the posthumous publications attributed to his pen are of doubtful authenticity. ‘Observations touching Trade and Commerce with the Hollands and other Nations’ (1650, and in ‘Remaines,’ 1651)—an account of a scheme for diverting the Dutch carrying trade into English hands, which is repeated in McCulloch's ‘Tracts,’ 1859—is more likely by John Keymer. ‘A Dialogue between a Jesuit and a Recusant in 1609,’ ‘The Life and Death of Mahomet’ (1637), ‘The Dutiful Advice of a loving Son to his aged Father’ (in Oxford edit.), may be safely rejected as obvious imitations of Ralegh's style. Two volumes attributed to Ralegh by Sir Henry Sheeres [q. v.], their editor, and respectively entitled ‘A Discourse on Sea Ports, principally on the Port and Haven of Dover,’ 1700–1 (reprinted in ‘Harleian Miscellany’), and ‘An Essay on the Means to maintain the Honour and Safety of England,’ 1701, are more probably by Sir Dudley Digges [q. v.]
The portraits of Ralegh are numerous. Among them is a full-length, probably by Zucchero, in the National Portrait Gallery, dated ‘1588 ætatis suæ 34,’ with a pair of compasses in the hand; another, in the Dublin Gallery, is assigned to the same artist (‘æt. 44, 1598’); a third, with his son Walter (anon. dated 1602), belongs to Sir John Farnaby Lennard, bart. (cf. Cat. Tudor Exhibition, 1890); a fifth belongs to the Marquis of Bath (cf. Cat. National Portraits at South Kensington, 1866, 1868); a beautiful miniature at Belvoir Castle, inscribed ‘æt. 65, 1618,’ forms the frontispiece to Mr. Stebbing's ‘Memoir,’ 1891; and a portrait by Isaac Oliver is described in the ‘Western Antiquary,’ 1881 (i. 126). There are engraved portraits by Simon Pass (prefixed to his ‘History of the World,’ 1621), by R. Vaughan (prefixed to his ‘Maxims of State’), by Houbraken (in Birch's ‘Lives’), and by Vertue (prefixed to Oldys's ‘Life,’ 1735).
The spelling Ralegh (pronounced Rawley) is that which he adopted on his father's death in 1581, and persistently used afterwards. In April 1578 he signed ‘Rauleygh’ (Trans. of the Devon Assoc. xv. 174); from November 1578 (State Papers, Dom. cxxvi. 46 I) till 1583 he signed ‘Rauley.’ His brother Carew signed ‘Raullygh’ in 1578 and ‘Raulligh’ in 1588 (ib. ccxvi. 48 I). Mr. Stebbing gives (pp. 30–1) a list of about seventy other ways in which the name has been spelt. The form Raleigh he is not known to have employed.
Lady Ralegh died in 1647. By her Ralegh had two sons, Walter and Carew. Walter, baptised at Lillington, Dorset, on 1 Nov. 1593, was probably born at Sherborne. He matriculated from Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 30 Oct. 1607, and graduated B.A. in 1610, his tutor being Dr. Daniel Fairclough, alias Featley, who describes him as addicted to ‘strange company and violent exercises.’ In 1613 Ben Jonson accompanied him as his governor or tutor to France. Jonson declares he was ‘knavishly inclined,’ and re-