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founder of the society of the Servants of the Holy Ghost, which was erected into an Arch-confraternity by Leo XIII in 1879, and has affiliated branches in Ireland, the United States, and France. He died at Brighton on 24 April 1885, and was buried in the cemetery of St. Mary Magdalen at Mortlake.

He was author of many devotional works; the chief are: 1. ‘The Lost Sheep, and other Poems,’ London, 1856, 8vo. 2. ‘Sursum; or Sparks flying Upward,’ London, 1864, 12mo. 3. ‘Septem; or Seven Ways of hearing Mass,’ 3rd edit., London [1869], 16mo. 4. ‘Great Truths in Little Words,’ 3rd edit., London [1872], 8vo. 5. ‘Homeward,’ 2nd edit. London, 1873, 8vo. 6. ‘Little Books of the Holy Ghost,’ London, 1880, &c., 16mo. 7. ‘Foregleams of the Desired: Sacred Verses, Hymns, and Translations,’ 3rd edit., London, 1881, 16mo.

[Men of the Time, 1884; Tablet, 2 May 1885, p. 703.]

T. C.

RAWLE, FRANCIS (1660–1727), colonist, born in England in 1660, was son of Francis Rawle, and came of an old Cornish family of some wealth and standing, settled at one time near St. Juliot, and later in the neighbourhood of Plymouth. Both father and son were quakers, and were persecuted for their religious belief, being imprisoned together at Exeter in 1683 (Besse, Sufferings of the Quakers, i. 163). On this account they obtained a grant from William Penn, left Plymouth in the Desire, and arrived at Philadelphia on 23 June 1686.

Rawle first settled on 2,500 acres in New Plymouth, where he founded the society known as the Plymouth Friends. Subsequently he removed to Philadelphia. His substance and talents soon brought him into note. In 1688 he became a justice of the peace and judge of the court of common pleas; under the charter of 1691 he was one of six aldermen of Philadelphia; in 1692 he became deputy registrar of wills, and in 1694 commissioner of property. He entered the assembly in 1704, and sat till 1708; again after an interval he was a member from 1719 till 1726, and while a member sat upon most of the important committees of the house, such as that on currency (1725). On 6 May 1724 he was appointed to the provincial council by Sir William Keith. He died at Philadelphia on 5 March 1727.

Rawle married, in 1689, Martha, daughter and heiress of Robert Turner, Penn's intimate friend, and left children, from whom sprang a leading family in the United States. Rawle seems to have been better educated and broader-minded than most of his colleagues. He was opposed to the action of the proprietary party in the colony. He is credited with two economic pamphlets, which created some stir in the colony on their first publication. 1. ‘Some Remedies proposed for restoring the Sunk Credit of the Province of Pennsylvania, with some Remarks on its Trade,’ Philadelphia, 1721 (Appleton seems to be in error in stating that this pamphlet was the first printed by Franklin, the printer summoned before the assembly for its publication being Andrew Bradford). 2. ‘Ways and Means for the Inhabitants of Delaware to grow Rich,’ 1725.

[Pennsylvania Mag. of Hist. and Biogr. iii. 119; Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biogr.]

C. A. H.

RAWLE, RICHARD (1812–1889), divine, born at Plymouth, 27 Feb. 1812, was a son of Francis Rawle (1778–1854), an attorney at Liskeard, who, on abandoning practice, settled at Plymouth; his mother, Amelia (Millett), died 6 Oct. 1814. Richard was educated at Plymouth new grammar school, and on 7 Feb. 1831 was admitted pensioner of Trinity College, Cambridge, under the tutorship of Dr. Whewell. On 19 April 1833 he obtained a scholarship at his college, and in 1835 he graduated B.A., being third wrangler and fourth classic. He was elected minor fellow of Trinity College, 3 Oct. 1836, and major fellow 3 July 1838, in which year he proceeded M.A. and became sub-lector tertius; he acted as assistant-tutor from 1836 to 1839. In 1839 he was ordained both deacon and priest, and accepted the rectory of Cheadle in Staffordshire. From 1847, when he resigned Cheadle, to 1864, he was principal of Codrington College at Barbados, and about 1859 he declined the offer of the bishopric of Antigua.

In 1864 Rawle returned to England, and, after refusing the offer of an honorary canonry in Ely Cathedral, and acting as vicar of Tamworth from 1869 to 1872, was on 29 June 1872 consecrated in Lichfield Cathedral as bishop of Trinidad, where he worked with great energy until 1888. He then resigned the see, but reaccepted the post of principal and professor of divinity at Codrington College, Barbados. He died at Codrington College on 10 May 1889, and was buried next day in the college burial-ground.

Rawle married at Cheadle parish church, on 14 Jan. 1851, Susan Anne Blagg, daughter of John Michael Blagg, of Rosehill in that parish. She died at Bournemouth on 1 March 1888, and was buried in Cheadle churchyard on 5 March. Rawle was the last male representative of