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overruling, on 11 May 1681, the plea to the jurisdiction of the king's bench set up by Edward Fitzharris [q. v.], and with Chief-justice Sir Francis North in passing sentence on 18 Aug. the same year on Stephen College [q. v.] He also concurred in the judgment on the quo warranto against the Corporation of London in June 1683, and died on circuit on 14 July following. His remains were interred in the church of Downham, Essex, in which parish was situated his seat, Tremnall Park.

Raymond married Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Fishe, bart., by whom he had, with two daughters who died in infancy, a son Robert [q. v.]

Raymond left in manuscript a valuable collection of reports first printed in 1696 (London, fol.), under the title ‘Reports of divers Special Cases adjudged in the courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer in the reign of King Charles II,’ 2nd ed. London, 1743, fol.; later editions, Dublin, 1793, 8vo, London, 1803, 8vo. His commonplace book, in several folio volumes, is among the manuscripts in the possession of Sir Edmund Filmer, bart.

[Morant's Essex, i. 206; North's Lives, i. 130; Patrick's Autobiography, p. 51; Foss's Lives of the Judges; Cobbett's State Trials, vii. 1048, 1104, 1527, viii. 564, 1263 et seq., xi. 858; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby; Le Neve's Pedigrees of Knights (Harl. Soc.); Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. App. 246, 7th Rep. App. pp. 363, 406, 479, 10th Rep. App. pt. iv. p. 133, 11th Rep. App. pt. ii. pp. 43, 88; Cussans's Hertfordshire, Hundred of Cashio, p. 96; Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs.]

J. M. R.

RAYNALDE, THOMAS (fl. 1546), author, is styled ‘physitian’ in one of his extant books, and ‘Doc. of Phisick’ in another. In 1545 he edited ‘The Birth of Mankynde, otherwise called the Woman's Book,’ dedicated by the original writer, who is supposed to have been one Richard Jonas, to Queen Catherine [Parr], wife of Henry VIII, and illustrated by many copper cuts (1540). The work is a translation from the Latin of Eucharius Roesslin's ‘De partu hominis’ (Frankfort, 1532), and is noticeable as either the first or second book in English treating of midwifery, and certainly the first that was illustrated. It was reprinted, always in black letter, and with some variations as to the cuts, in 1545 (see Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert), 1564, 1565 (4to), 1598 (4to), 1604 (4to). The latest edition seems to be that of 1676. Raynalde's second book was ‘A Compendious Declaration of the Excellent Virtues of a certain lateli invented oile called for the worthnis thereof oile imperial, with the maner how the same is to be used to the benefite of mankinde against innumerable diseases. Written by Thomas Rainold, Doc. of Phisick. Virtute duce, comite fortuna,’ Venice, 1551. The epistle dedicatory is dated from Venice, 1 March, and is inscribed ‘to his singular friend Francis Mery, merchant, of the city of London.’ It notices the author's indebtedness to Mery, who had purchased from him a large quantity of the oil imperial.

A printer of the same name was well known in London between 1541 and 1555, and he printed the first of the two books of Thomas Raynalde, the physician. It is thence inferred that the two men were identical, and that the physician added the practice of a printer to that of the medical profession. The theory seems improbable. The printer and physician were doubtless kinsmen, but the name, which is equivalent to Thomas Reynolds, is of common occurrence. The printer dwelt at first in the parish of St. Andrew Wardrobe, but in 1549 kept shop at the Signe of the Star in St. Paul's Churchyard. In 1548 he issued an edition of Cranmer's ‘Confutation of Unwritten Verities,’ 8vo. He also issued Wyat's ‘Certaine Psalmes,’ and an edition of Matthew's Bible; in all, about thirty books bear his imprint. The last book he appears to have printed is dated 1555.

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, i. 581–5; Raynalde's works in the Brit. Mus.]

W. A. S.

RAYNER, LIONEL BENJAMIN (1788?–1855), actor, was born in Heckmondwike in the West Riding of Yorkshire on 10 Oct. 1788, or, according to another account, in 1786. He is said, as a child, to have learnt by heart, and recited in his eleventh year, the whole of Lee's tragedy of ‘Alexander the Great,’ a thing possible enough as regards himself, but highly improbable as regards his hearers. After seeing, at Leeds, Mathews as Farmer Ashfield in ‘Speed the Plough,’ he ran away from home and joined a company at Cheadle, Staffordshire, where he opened as Jeremy Diddler. This must have been subsequent to 1803, when Kenney's farce, ‘Raising the Wind,’ in which Jeremy Diddler appears, was first played. His manager played the light-comedy parts in which alone Rayner had determined to be seen, so he left and joined, at a salary of three shillings weekly, another company. At Stratford-on-Avon, by his performance of Solomon Lob in ‘Love laughs at Locksmiths,’ he raised his position and his salary. He appeared at Manchester as Robin Roughhead with success; and then, at a salary of thirty shillings, joined the Not-