History,’ the first dated Chanteloup in Touraine, 6 Nov. 1735, were privately printed before Bolingbroke's death; but first published by Mallet in 1752, in 2 vols. 8vo, with ‘Plan for a General History,’ ‘True Use of Retirement and Study,’ and ‘Reflections upon Exile.’ In 1752 was also published ‘Reflections concerning Innate Moral Principles’ (not included in his ‘Works’), in French and English, said to have been written for the ‘Entresol’ Club, founded by Alari, of which there is an account in Grimoard, iii. 451, &c. In 1753 ‘Letter to Sir W. Wyndham,’ the ‘Reflections on the State of the Nation,’ and the ‘Introductory Letter to Pope’ were published by Mallet. Finally, in 1754, Mallet published the collected works, in 5 vols. 4to; which add ‘Substance of some Letters written originally in French about 1720, to M. de Pouilly;’ ‘A Letter occasioned by one of Archbishop Tillotson's Sermons;’ ‘[Four] Essays addressed to Alexander Pope,’ ‘Fragments or Minutes of Essays,’ &c., which, according to Mallet, were sent to Pope as written. This edition was ‘the gun charged against Christianity’ of Dr. Johnson's famous comment. Another quarto edition was published in 1778, and an octavo edition in 8 vols. 8vo, in 1809, with the ‘Life’ by Goldsmith prefixed.
[A contemporary Life and History of Bolingbroke appeared in 1752, and a Life by Goldsmith in 1770. Other contemporary memoirs appeared about 1740 and in 1754. A short life is prefixed to the editions of his Works. The first life worth notice, by George Wingrove Cooke [q. v.], published in 1835, is superficial. A Life by Thomas Macknight (1863) shows more research, though not always accurate. Mr. John Churton Collins's Bolingbroke, a Historical Study (with Voltaire in 1886), gives a spirited summary and criticism. Life by Thomas Harrop (1884), and Dr. Moritz Brosch's Lord Bolingbroke und die Whigs und Tories seiner Zeit (1883), add little. Mr. Arthur Hassall's Bolingbroke (1889), in the Statesman Series, Dr. Gottfried Koch's short notice, ‘Bolingbroke's politische Ansichten und die Squirearchei’ (1890), and Walter Sichel's ‘Bolingbroke and his Times’ (1901–2) may also be noticed. Rémusat's L'Angleterre au Dix-huitième Siècle, i. 111–452, gives a fair summary of his career, and his philosophical position is outlined in Carran's La Philosophie Religieuse en Angleterre depuis Locke, 1888, pp. 64–91. The original authorities are chiefly for the last four years of Queen Anne, Bolingbroke's Letters and Correspondence, by G. Parke, 1798, containing papers saved by his secretary, Thomas Hare, at the time of Queen Anne's death; Swift's Journal to Stella, Memoirs relating to the Charge in the year 1710, Inquiry into the Behaviour of the Queen's Last Ministry, Four Last Years and Correspondence; Torcy's Memoirs (quoted from Petitot's Collection, vol. lxviii.); The Report of the Committee of Secrecy (printed in appendix to Parl. Hist. vol. vii.). Macpherson's Original Papers; Lockhart Papers (1817); Stuart Papers, at Windsor, from which extracts are printed in the appendices to the first two volumes of Stanhope's History; and Mackintosh's Collections, now in the British Museum, from which extracts were given in the Edinburgh Review for October 1835, are the chief authorities as to the early Jacobite intrigues. Berwick's Memoirs (Petitot Collection, vol. lxvi.) and the Letter to Sir W. Wyndham give the best account of the first period in France. The Lettres Historiques, Politiques, Philosophiques, et Particulières, &c., 3 vols. 8vo, 1808, with introduction by Grimoard, contains translations of letters published elsewhere, with some new letters to the Abbé Alari, a friend of Bolingbroke, and Mme. de Villette, and to Mme. de Ferriol, from 1717 to 1736. Grimoard's introduction adds a few facts. For the later history, the correspondence published in the second volume of Coxe's Walpole (quoted from the quarto edition of 1798) is of chief importance. It includes Bolingbroke's Letters to Wyndham from the Egremont Papers. The correspondence of Swift and Pope contains many letters from Bolingbroke, and much incidental information. The Marchmont Papers, edited by Sir G. Rose, contain many letters from Bolingbroke during his last years, in vol. ii., and some accounts of him in Marchmont's Diary, in vol. i. Phillimore's Life of Lyttelton and Chesterfield's Works add some letters and notices. In the 9th App. to the 14th Rep. of the Hist. MSS. Comm. pp. 465–7, 470–2, 515, are some interesting remarks by Speaker Onslow upon Bolingbroke's relations to George I, the Duchess of Kendal, and Walpole. See also Spence's Anecdotes; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes; Schlosser's Hist. of the Eighteenth Century; Stephen's Religious Thought in the Eighteenth Century; Watson's Life of Warburton, and Walpole's Letters.]
ST. JOHN, HORACE STEBBING ROSCOE (1832–1888), journalist, youngest son of James Augustus St. John [q. v.], was born in Normandy in 1832 and educated under his father. He began his journalistic career as a boy, and while ‘in a round jacket and turn-down collar’ wrote a leading article for the ‘Sunday Times.’ With his brothers Bayle and Percy Bolingbroke St. John, both of whom are separately noticed, he edited in 1854 ‘Utopia: a political, literary, and industrial journal,’ which only ran to six numbers. For many years he was a leader-writer on political topics on the ‘Daily Telegraph,’ and frequently acted as special correspondent of the ‘Times,’ the ‘Standard,’ and other newspapers. During 1862 and 1863 he was a contributor to the ‘Athenæum,’ to the ‘Seven Days' Journal,’