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on temperament, entitled ‘A Proposal to perform Music in Perfect and Mathematical Proportions,’ to which John Wallis contributed; this was apparently ignored by the musical world. Salmon's next publication, in 1701, was in favour of education and universal parochial schools, and in 1704 he published ‘A New Historical Account of St. George for England; and the Origin of the Most Noble Order of the Garter,’ in refutation of Dr. Peter Heylyn's eulogy upon the patron saint of the order. Next followed ‘Historical Collections of Great Britain’ (1706).

Returning to his musical studies, he gave, in July 1705, a lecture before the Royal Society upon ‘Just Intonation,’ with illustrative performances by the brothers Stefkins and Gasperini; the report (Philosophical Transactions) seems to show that equal temperament was already recognised in musical practice. On 4 Dec. he wrote to Sir Hans Sloane concerning Greek enharmonic music, announcing that, when again in London, he ‘would set the mechanicals at work.’ On 8 Jan. he again wrote; he was looking for a munificent patron to carry out experiments, and added: ‘There are two things before us: either to give a full consort of the present musick in the greatest perfection … or to make an advancement into the Enharmonic Musick, which the world has been utterly unacquainted with ever since the overthrow of Classical Learning.’

Salmon died at Mepsal, and was buried in the church on 1 Aug. 1706. He married Katherine, daughter of Serjeant John Bradshaw [q. v.] the regicide; his sons Nathanael [q. v.] and Thomas [q. v.] (1679–1767) are noticed separately.

[Salmon's and M. Locke's Works; Letters in Sloane MS. 4040, formerly in MS. 4058; Masters's History of Corpus Christi Coll. Cambr. p. 365; Wood's Athenæ Oxon. iv. 683, and Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 298, 319; Foster's Alumni Oxonienses; Hawkins's History of Music, c. 150; Burney's History of Music, iii. 473–4, iv. 627; Grove's Dictionary of Music, iii. 655; Davey's History of English Music, p. 337; Moule's Bibliotheca Heraldica, p. 264; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, ii. 132, ix. 491; Philosophical Transactions, Nos. 80 and 302; Gentleman's Magazine, November 1796.]

H. D.

SALMON, THOMAS (1679–1767), historical and geographical writer, born at Meppershall and baptised there on 2 Feb. 1678–9, was son of Thomas Salmon (1648–1706) [q. v.], rector of Meppershall or Mepsall, Bedfordshire, by his wife Katherine, daughter of John Bradshaw [q. v.], the regicide. Nathanael Salmon [q. v.] was his elder brother. Cole says that although he was brought up to no learned profession, ‘yet he had no small turn for writing, as his many productions show, most of which were written when he resided at Cambridge, where at last he kept a coffee-house, but, not having sufficient custom, removed to London’ (Addit. MS. 5880, f. 198 b). He informed Cole that he had been much at sea, and had resided in both the Indies for some time. He also travelled many years in Europe and elsewhere (The Universal Traveller, 1752, Introd.), and the observations he records in his works are largely the result of personal experience. In 1739–40 he accompanied Anson on his voyage round the world. He died on 20 Jan. 1767 (Gent. Mag. 1767, p. 48).

His works are: 1. ‘A Review of the History of England, as far as it relates to the Titles and Pretensions of four several Kings, and their Respective Characters, from the Conquest to the Revolution,’ London, 1722, 8vo; 2nd ed. 2 vols. London, 1724, 8vo. 2. ‘An Impartial Examination of Bishop Burnet's History of his own Times,’ 2 vols. London, 1724, 8vo. 3. ‘Bishop Burnet's Proofs of the Pretender's Illegitimacy … compared with the Account given by other writers of the same fact,’ 2 vols. London, 1724, 8vo. 4. ‘A Critical Essay concerning Marriage … By a Gentleman,’ London, 1724, 8vo, and a second edition in the same year under the author's name. 5. ‘The Characters of the several Noblemen and Gentlemen that have died in the Defence of their Princes, or the Liberties of their Country. Together with the Characters of those who have suffer'd for Treason and Rebellion for the last three hundred years,’ London, 1724, 8vo. 6. ‘The Chronological Historian, containing a regular Account of all material Transactions and Occurrences, Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Military, relating to the English affairs, from the Invasion of the Romans to the Death of King George I,’ London, 1733, 8vo; 3rd ed. continued to the fourteenth year of George II, 2 vols. London, 1747, 8vo. A French translation, by Garrigue de Froment, appeared in 2 vols., Paris, 1751, 8vo. 7. ‘A new Abridgment and Critical Review of the State Trials and Impeachments for High Treason,’ London, 1738, fol. 8. ‘Modern History, or the Present State of all Nations … illustrated with Cuts and Maps … by Herman Moll,’ 3 vols. London, 1739, 4to; 3rd ed. 3 vols. London, 1744–6, fol. This is his best known work, and it has been abridged, continued, and published under various fictitious names. A Dutch translation, in forty-four parts, appeared at Amsterdam, 1729–1820, and an Italian translation in twenty-three volumes, at Venice, 1740–61, 4to. 9. ‘The Present