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the philosophic works of Hermes Trismegistus, Kalid, Geber, Artephius, Nicholas Flammel, Roger Bacon, and George Ripley; and in 1696 ‘The Family Dictionary,’ a work on domestic medicine. In 1698 he took part in the dispensary controversy [see Garth, Sir Samuel], in a ‘Rebuke to the Authors of a Blew Book written on behalf of the Apothecaries and Chirurgians of the City of London.’ In 1699 he published a general surgical treatise, ‘Ars Chirurgica.’ He used to attend the meetings of a new sect at Leathersellers' Hall, and in 1700 published a ‘Discourse on Water Baptism.’ In 1707 he published ‘The Practice of Physick, or Dr. Sydenham's “Processus Integri” translated,’ and in 1710 and 1711 two folio volumes, ‘Botanologia; or the English Herbal,’ dedicated to Queen Anne. He accumulated a large library, had two microscopes, a set of Napier's bones [see Napier or Neper, John], and other mathematical instruments, some arrows and curiosities which he brought from the West Indies, and a few Dutch paintings. He died in 1713. His portrait is prefixed to his edition of Diemerbroek, and to his ‘Ars Anatomica,’ which appeared posthumously in 1714. Several other engraved portraits are mentioned by Bromley, among them being one by Vandergucht.

Parts of the ‘Bibliothèque des Philosophes,’ 1672, and the ‘Dictionnaire Hermetique,’ 1695, are attributed to him, and besides the books mentioned above, he wrote ‘Officina Chymica,’ ‘Systema Medicinale,’ a ‘Pharmacopœia Londinensis,’ ‘Pharmacopœia Bateana,’ and ‘Phylaxa Medicinæ.’ The bibliography of his works is complicated, as several were reprinted with alterations, and his own lists do not agree with one another and are devoid of dates. His recorded cases, though they seem original, may often be traced to other sources, and it would be easy to believe what he says was asserted (Iatrica, preface), that he was merely the amanuensis of another person.

[Works; Bibliotheca Salmonea, London, 1713; Sebastian Smith of Amsterdam, The Religious Impostor: or the Life of Alexander, a Sham Prophet, Doctor and Fortune-Teller, out of Lucian, dedicated to Dr. Salmon, London, 1700.]

N. M.

SALMON, WILLIAM (fl. 1745), writer on building, was a carpenter and builder at Colchester, Essex, who wrote practical treatises on all the branches of his trade, including plumbers', plasterers', and painters' work, with which he claimed practical acquaintance. He published: 1. ‘The London and Country Builder's Vade Mecum, or the Compleat and Universal Estimator,’ 1745, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1755. 2. ‘Palladio Londinensis, or the London Art of Building,’ 1734, 4to; 5th edit., with alterations and improvements by Hoppus and others, and the ‘Builder's Dictionary’ annexed, 1755.

Salmon's son, of the same christian name, lived at Colchester, and wrote books of like character. The two are frequently confounded. In 1820 a William Salmon was ‘late surveyor to the corporation of the Law Association.’ The younger William Salmon published: 1. ‘The Country Builder's Estimator, or Architect's Companion;’ 3rd edit., corrected by Hoppus, 1746; 6th edit. 1758; 8th edit., with additions by John Green of Salisbury, 1770. 2. ‘The Builder's Guide and Gentleman and Tradesman's Assistant,’ 1759.

[The works of the elder and younger Salmon; Dict. of Architecture.]

M. G. W.

SALOMON, WILLIAM (1745–1815), musician, was born at Bonn in the house (515 Bonngasse) where Beethoven was born twenty-five years later. He was baptised on 2 Feb. 1745. His father, himself a musician of small account, had him educated for the law; he attained some classical learning, and spoke four modern languages perfectly, accomplishments of the greatest service to him in after life. At the same time the boy distinguished himself in music, and about 1757 the elector of Cologne appointed him court musician, without regular pay, in the palace at Bonn. On 30 Aug. 1758 he was ordered 125 gulden. Leave of absence was refused in 1764; but on 1 Aug. 1765 he left the establishment with high testimonials, and, after touring as a violinist, was engaged as concertmeister (leader) by Prince Henry of Prussia. For the prince's French company at Rheinsberg several operettas were composed by Salomon, who also helped to make Haydn's works (then ‘music of the future’) better known and appreciated in north Germany. After some years the orchestra was discharged, upon which Salomon went to Paris, and thence to London. During this period he had often revisited Bonn, and won the affection of the child Beethoven. Salomon's first appearance in England was at Covent Garden on 23 March 1781; he led the orchestra and played a solo of his own composition. At once he became one of the principal London musicians, and his name constantly appears as soloist, leader (time-beating was not then practised), and occasionally as composer, during the next twenty years, both in London and the provinces. In 1786 Salomon began concert-giving on his own account, in opposition to