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a magistrate and deputy lieutenant for Kent, Sussex, and Middlesex, receiving his commission for Kent in 1838 as the first Jewish magistrate. He was again elected alderman, this time for Portsoken ward, in 1844; but, the oath being still compulsory, he was not admitted to the office by the court of aldermen. In the following year, mainly through the exertions of Salomons, an act of parliament was passed to enable Jews to accept and hold municipal offices, and in 1847 he was accordingly elected and admitted alderman of Cordwainer ward. In celebration of his triumph Salomons founded a perpetual scholarship of 50l. per annum in the City of London School. He was admitted a member of the Middle Temple in 1849.

His political career began at Shoreham, which he unsuccessfully contested in the liberal interest in August 1837. He was also defeated at Maidstone in June 1841, and at Greenwich in August 1847, but was returned as a liberal for the last-mentioned borough in June 1851. He declined to take the oath ‘on the true faith of a Christian,’ but nevertheless insisted on voting three times without having been sworn in the statutory way. Prolonged legal proceedings followed in the court of exchequer, and he was fined 500l. Upon the alteration of the parliamentary oath in 1858 [see Rothschild, Lionel Nathan de] he was again elected for Greenwich as a liberal, and took his seat in 1859, continuing to represent that constituency until his death. Salomons had great weight with the house in commercial and financial questions.

His civic career was crowned by his election as lord mayor on Michaelmas day 1855; and on leaving office he received the unique distinction of an address of congratulation signed by the leading merchants and bankers of the city. He was created a baronet on 26 Oct. 1869, with limitation, in default of male issue, to his nephew, David Lionel Salomons (the present baronet). He died on 18 July 1873 at his house in Great Cumberland Place, Hyde Park.

Salomons was twice married, first, to Jeanette, daughter of Solomon Cohen; and secondly, in 1872, to Cecilia, widow of P. J. Salomons. There were no children by either marriage. By his will he left a legacy of 1,000l. to the Guildhall Library, which was applied in part to augment the collection of Hebrew and Jewish works presented by his brother Philip, and in part to the purchase of books on commerce and art.

He was author of:

  1. ‘A Defence of the Joint-stock Banks,’ 1837.
  2. ‘The Monetary Difficulties of America,’ 1837.
  3. ‘An Account of the Persecution of the Jews at Damascus,’ 1840.
  4. ‘Reflections on the Recent Pressure on the Money Market,’ 1840.
  5. ‘The Case of David Salomons, being his Address to the Court of Aldermen,’ 1844.
  6. ‘Parliamentary Oaths,’ 1850.
  7. ‘Alteration of Oaths,’ 1853.

[Times, 13 July 1835 p. 5, 1 Oct. 1835 p. 3, 1 Oct. 1855 p. 10, 10 Nov. 1855 p. 7, 10 Nov. 1856 p. 10, 23 July 1873 p. 5; City Press, 26 July 1873, p. 3; Burke's Peerage; Men of the Time; Dod's Parliamentary Companion; Guildhall Library Catalogue.]

C. W-h.

SALT, HENRY (1780–1827), traveller and collector of antiquities, born at Lichfield, 14 June 1780, was the youngest child of Thomas Salt, a Lichfield doctor, by his wife Alice, daughter of Cary Butt, another medical man of Lichfield. He was sent to the free school of his native place, and to the school at Market Bosworth, where he was idle, though fond of reading. He was destined for a portrait-painter, and on leaving school was taught drawing by Glover, the watercolour-painter of Lichfield. In 1797 he went to London and became a pupil of Joseph Farington, R.A., and (in 1800) of John Hoppner, R.A. About 1801 he painted a few portraits which he sold for small sums; but, though an accurate draughtsman, he never mastered the technicalities of painting.

On 3 June 1802 Salt left London for an eastern tour with George, viscount Valentia (afterwards Lord Mountnorris), whom he accompanied as secretary and draughtsman. He visited India, Ceylon, and (in 1805) Abyssinia, returning to England on 26 Oct. 1806. He made many drawings, some of which served to illustrate Lord Valentia's Voyages and Travels to India, published in 1809. Twenty-four Views in St. Helena … and Egypt were published by Salt from his own drawings in the same year. The originals of all these drawings were retained by Lord Valentia.

In January 1809 Salt was sent by the British government to Abyssinia to carry presents to the king, to report on the state of the country, and to cultivate friendly relations with the tribes on the Red Sea coast. He was unable to proceed to the king at Gondar, but delivered the presents of ammunition and richly ornamented arms to the ras of Tigre, whom he delighted with a display of fireworks. Salt again reached England on 11 Jan. 1811. He subsequently received an affectionate letter from the ras: 'How art thou, Hinorai Sawelt? Peace to thee, and may the peace of the Lord be with thee! Above all things, how