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made to raise him to the cardinalate. Mendoza, 6 April 1581, represented the desires of the English catholics for a hat for either Sanders or Allen, and the king in reply promised to use his influence that not one but both should be made cardinals (Cal. State Papers, Simancas, pp. 97, 118, 119).

Before leaving Spain Sanders placed in the hands of Sega the manuscript of his ‘De Clave David,’ a reply to the attacks made upon his ‘De Monarchia,’ with a request that, if any accident should befall him, Sega would see that the book was published, which was done in 1588. Sanders also left behind him unfinished his more famous book, ‘De Origine ac Progressu Schismatis Anglicani,’ which he was writing at Madrid in 1576. About this he had apparently given no instructions, and after his death many copies circulated in manuscript. Edward Rishton [q. v.] edited the work, making some retrenchments and carrying on the history from the point at which Sanders had broken off, viz. the accession of Elizabeth, to the date of publication. It was printed at Cologne in 1585. On the continent it was frequently reprinted and translated, and it formed the basis of every Roman catholic history of the English Reformation. In England it obtained for its author the evil name of Dr. Slanders. He was said to have invented his facts as well as his authorities. The French translation made by Maucroix (ed. 1676) was the proximate occasion of Burnet writing his ‘History,’ in which he catalogues and refutes the alleged calumnies of Sanders. Especially is Sanders denounced as the originator of the story that Anne Boleyn was Henry's own daughter. Recent historians have, however, shown that, notwithstanding his animus and the violence of his language, his narrative of facts is remarkably truthful. In almost every disputed point he has been proved right and Burnet wrong. The statement of Sanders, for instance, that Bishop John Ponet [q. v.] was tried and punished for adultery with a butcher's wife has been unquestionably confirmed by the publication of Machyn's ‘Diary’ and the ‘Grey Friars Chronicle;’ and, even in the extreme case of the impossible story regarding Anne Boleyn's birth, it is proved to have been at least no invention of Sanders, but was repeated by him, in apparent good faith, on the authority of Rastall's ‘Life of More,’ to which he refers, and of common gossip. In respect to information derived from Roman sources, Sanders is particularly accurate (Saturday Review, xxi. 290, xxvi. 82, 464, xliv. 398; Lewis, translation of the De Schismate, pp. xxi–xlvii).

The following is a complete list of works written by or attributed to Sanders: 1. ‘The Supper of our Lord set foorth in Six Books, according to the Truth of the Gospell,’ Louvain, 1565 and 1566, 4to. 2. ‘Tres Orationes Lovanii habitæ, A.D. 1565. De Transsubstantiatione; De Linguis Officiorum Eccles.; De pluribus Missis in eodem Templo,’ &c. Antwerp, 1566. 3. ‘A Treatise of Images of Christ and his Saints,’ Louvain, 1567, 8vo. 4. ‘The Rocke of the Churche wherein the Primacy of Peter,’ &c., Louvain, 1567, 8vo. 5. ‘A briefe Treatise of Usurie,’ Louvain, 1568, 8vo. 6. ‘De Typica et Honoraria S. Imaginum Adoratione,’ Louvain, 1568. 7. ‘Sacrificii Missæ ac ejus partium Explicatio,’ Louvain, 1569; Antwerp, 1573. 8. ‘Quod Dominus in sexto cap. Joannis de Sacramento Eucharistiæ proprie sit locutus Tractatus,’ Antwerp, 1570, 12mo. 9. ‘Pro Defensione Excommunicationis a Pio V,’ &c., suppressed as mentioned above. 10. ‘De Visibili Monarchia Ecclesiæ,’ Louvain, 1571, fol. The following were edited posthumously: 11. ‘De Origine ac Progressu Schismatis Anglicani … editus et auctus per Edouardum Rishtonum,’ Cologne, 1585, 8vo; English translation with notes and introduction by David Lewis, London, 1877. 12. ‘De Justificatione contra Colloquium Altenburgense libri sex in quibus explicantur dissidia Lutheranorum,’ Trèves, 1585. 13. ‘De Clave David, seu regno Christi contra calumnias Acleri’ (edited by F. de Sega, bishop of Piacenza), Rome, 1588, 4to. 14. Wood and Dodd add ‘De Militantis Eccles. Romanæ Potestate,’ Rome, 1603, 4to; and Pits mentions ‘Sedes Apostolica,’ Venice, 1603. 15. ‘De Martyrio quorundam temp. Hen. VIII et Elizabethæ,’ printed in 1610 (Wood), is an excerpt from the ‘De Vis. Monarchia.’ 16. ‘Orationum partim Lovanii partim in Concilio Trident. et alibi habitarum liber’ (Pits) is perhaps the same as No. 2. Pits also ascribes to Sanders, on the authority of Richard Stanyhurst, who declared to Pits that he had seen them, (a) a chronicle of things done in his presence in Ireland, and (b) a book of letters written by Sanders from Ireland to Gregory XIII.

[Biographies, with list of publications, in Pits, p. 773, Dodd, ii. 75, and Wood's Athenæ, i. 469; Strype's Memorials, ii. 29, 472, Annals, ii. 196, 551; Parker, ii. 168–73, iii. 214; Lewis's introduction to his translation of Sanders's Hist. of the Schism; Froude's History, vol. x. ch. lxii.; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors; Teulet's Papiers d'État, ii. 329, 312; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Eliz. Addit. xxi., For. Eliz. 1572, No. 41, 1573, No. 1262, Ireland, 1574–85, pp. 163–306, Spanish, ii. 666–706, iii. 44, 69,