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the help of Turkey against Russia. In his last years he devoted time and labour to agitating for an improved water supply for London.

In 1880 the state of his wife's health led them to winter at Davos, with bad results for both of them. In the spring he became rapidly worse, and he died at Paris on 16 May 1881, and was buried at Passy. He had five children, one of whom, together with his wife, died next year.

Sandwith combined a genial disposition and winning character with singular directness and disinterestedness. Professor Max Müller wrote of him: ‘I never heard him make a concession. Straight as an arrow he flew through life, a devoted lover of truth, a despiser of all quibbles.’ Canon Liddon thought him one of the most remarkable persons he had known, and doubted whether any other Englishman had done so much for the relief of the Christian populations of European Turkey. But he had the one-sidedness of a strong partisan.

The following is a list of his chief writings, other than journalistic: 1. ‘A Narrative of the Siege of Kars, and of the Six Months' Resistance of the Turkish Garrison, under General Williams, to the Russian Army; together with a Narrative of Travels and Adventures in Armenia and Lazristan, with Remarks on the present State of Turkey,’ London, 1856, 8vo. 2. ‘The Hekim-Bashi; or the Adventures of Giuseppe Antonelli, a Doctor in the Turkish Service,’ 2 vols. London, 1864, 8vo. 3. ‘A Preface to “Notes on the South Slavonic Countries in Austria and Turkey in Europe,”’ London, 1865, 8vo. 4. ‘Minsterborough: a Tale of English Life’ (based on reminiscences of his youth at Beverley), 3 vols. London, 1876, 8vo. 5. ‘Shall we fight Russia? An Address to the Working Men of Great Britain,’ London, 1877, 8vo.

[T. Humphry Ward's Memoir (compiled from autobiographical notes), 1884.]

E. M. L.

SANDYS, CHARLES (1786–1859), antiquary, born in 1786, was second son of Edwin Humphrey Sandys, solicitor, of Canterbury, by his second wife, Helen, daughter of Edward Lord Chick, esq. (Burke, Landed Gentry, 1882, ii. 1414). He was admitted a solicitor in 1808, and practised at Canterbury until 1857, when circumstances obliged him to retire abroad. He died in 1859; he had married Sedley Francis Burdett, by whom he had issue. Sandys was elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries on 18 June 1846.

He published: 1. ‘A Critical Dissertation on Professor Willis's “Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral,”’ 8vo, London, 1846. 2. ‘The Memorial and Case of Clerici Laici, or Lay Clerks of Canterbury Cathedral,’ 8vo, London, 1849. 3. ‘Consuetudines Kanciæ: a History of Gavelkind and other Remarkable Customs in the County of Kent,’ 8vo, London, 1851. He also compiled a concise history of Reculver, Kent, from the time of the Romans to that of Henry VIII, which was inserted in C. Roach Smith's ‘History and Antiquities of Richborough, Reculver, and Lymne,’ 1850. The manuscript is in the cathedral library, Canterbury. To the Gloucester congress volume of the British Archæological Association (1846) Sandys contributed a valuable paper on the Dane John Hill at Canterbury (pp. 136–48).

[Sandys's Works; information from Incorporated Law Society; law lists and directories in Brit. Mus.]

G. G.

SANDYS, EDWIN (1516?–1588), archbishop of York, was born probably at Hawkshead in Furness Fells, Lancashire, in 1516. Strype, in his life of Parker (i. 125), says that he was a Lancashire man (of a stock settled at St. Bees), and that he was forty-three when consecrated bishop of Worcester in 1559, the former statement supporting that of Baines (Lancashire, v. 625), who also names Hawkshead as his birthplace. He was third son of William Sandys by Margaret, daughter of John Dixon of London (ib., but cf. Strype, Annals, III. ii. 65). Strype connects his family with that of William, lord Sandys [q. v.], but the connection seems doubtful (cf. Foster, Lancashire Pedigrees, ‘Sandys’). He was probably educated at Furness Abbey, where John Bland [q. v.], the martyr, is said to have been his teacher. He then went to St. John's College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1539, M.A. 1541, B.D. 1547, and D.D. 1549. In 1542 he served the office of proctor. He was chosen master of Catharine Hall in 1547. In 1548 he was vicar of Caversham, and on 12 Dec. 1549 became canon of Peterborough. He was one of Bucer's friends at Cambridge, and is said (Strype, Parker, p. 56) to have been consulted about his ‘De Regno Christi.’ In 1552 he received a prebend at Carlisle.

Sandys, like Ridley and Cheke, supported Lady Jane Grey's cause on religious grounds. He was vice-chancellor of Cambridge University in 1553, and when Northumberland on his journey into the eastern counties came to Cambridge he joined him, and preached before him a sermon in which Lady Jane's claims were upheld. This sermon, which ‘pulled many tears out of the eye of