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8 Oct. 1659 (G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage; Cal. Committee for Compounding, pp. 1151, 1153; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1655–6, p. 314).

Savile's career justifies Clarendon's description of him as a man ‘of an ambitious and restless nature, of parts and wit enough, but in his disposition and inclination so false that he could never be believed or depended upon.’ He was ‘a bold talker, and applicable to any undertaking, good, bad, or indifferent’ (ib.) Malice against Strafford was the motive of his forged invitation to the Scots; during the civil war he was sincerely desirous of peace, but he sought it by underhand means, and only that he might enjoy in security the rewards of his successive betrayal of both parties. Throughout his shifty intrigues his one fixed purpose was to establish his own fortunes whichever party triumphed. A portrait of Savile, engraved from a drawing in the Sutherland Collection in the Bodleian Library, is given in Doyle's ‘Peerage.’

Savile married, first, Frances, daughter of Sir Michael Sondes of Throwley, Kent, and widow of Sir John Leveson, by whom he had no issue; secondly, in 1640 or 1641, Lady Anne, daughter of Christopher Villiers, earl of Anglesey [q. v.] By her he had a son James and a daughter Frances (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1669, p. 537). The son (b. 1647) succeeded him as second Earl of Sussex, and died without issue in 1671, when the honour became extinct; the daughter married Lord Francis Brudenell, younger son of Thomas, first earl of Cardigan, and was mother of George, third earl of Cardigan, and grandmother of George Brudenell Montagu, duke of Montagu [q. v.]

[Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 32093, ff. 211–12; Egerton MS. 2537; Journals of the Lords and Commons, passim; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 11th Reps. passim; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1620–60; Cal. Committee for Compounding; Cal. Clarendon State Papers, ed. Macray; Strafford Papers; Thurloe's, Rushworth's, and Nalson's Collections, passim; Official Return Members of Parl.; Courthope, Doyle, and Burke's Peerages; Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees; Whitaker's Loidis et Elmete; Papers relating to the Delinquency of Lord Savile, Papers relating to Wentworth, Fortescue Papers, and Notes of the Treaty at Ripon (all in Camden Soc.); Baillie's Journals (Bannatyne Club), passim; Whitelocke's Memorials; Mandeville's Memoirs (Add. MS. 15567); Holles's Memoirs, 1699; Laud's Works, vols. iii. vii.; Clarendon's Hist. of the Rebellion; Sanford's Studies in the Great Rebellion, p. 170; Masson's Milton, passim; Browning's Life of Strafford; Cartwright's Chapters of Yorkshire Hist.; Ranke's Hist. of England; Gardiner's Hist. of England and Civil War.]

A. F. P.

SAVIOLO, VINCENTIO (fl. 1595), writer on fencing, was born at Padua, where a family of the name was long settled (Crollanza, Dizionario Storico Blazonico, p. 497). Vincentio travelled abroad, chiefly in eastern Europe, and obtained a reputation as a fencer. Finally coming to England, he was taken into the service of the Earl of Essex. On 13 Dec. 1589 Richard Jones obtained a license for the publication of a book by him, called ‘The Book of Honour.’ No volume by him of so early a date is extant. But in 1595 there was issued ‘Vincentio Saviolo his Practise. In two Bookes. The first intreating the use of the Rapier and Dagger. The second of Honor and honorable Quarrels. Both interlaced with sundrie pleasant Discourses, not unfit for all Gentlemen and Captaines that professe Armes,’ London, 1595, 4to. Some copies bore the imprint of John Wolf, but most of them were printed ‘for William Mattes.’ The work—the first in English dealing with the rapier—was dedicated to the Earl of Essex, whom Saviolo described as the English Achilles. He apologises for the defects of his English. The first book is in dialogue, the interlocutors being the author and a friend called Luke, and it is illustrated by woodcuts showing the uses of rapier and dagger. Saviolo expounds the Italian system of fencing, and shows no acquaintance with the French system. The second book, consisting of a series of detached essays, has a preface dated 1594. The last chapter bears the title ‘The Nobility of Women,’ and concludes with a panegyric on Queen Elizabeth. Two copies are in the British Museum.

Shakespeare was familiar with Saviolo's ‘Practise.’ In bk. ii. sig. Q, reference is made by Saviolo to an episode which resembles Orlando's duel with Charles, the Duke Frederick's wrestler, in ‘As you like it.’ In the same play (v. 4) Touchstone's description of the various forms of a lie is obviously based on Saviolo's chapters ‘Of the Manner and Diversitie of Lies.’ Saviolo treats in detail of ‘Lies Certaine,’ ‘Conditional Lies,’ ‘Lies in General,’ ‘Lies in Particular,’ and ‘Foolish Lies.’

[Saviolo's Practise; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. x. 25; Collier's Bibl. Cat. ii. 321; National Review, May 1891; C. A. Thimm's Complete Bibliography of Fencing and Duelling, 1896 (with reproduction of Saviolo's title page).]

S. L.

SAVONA, LAURENCE WILLIAM of (fl. 1485), a Franciscan of London, graduated D.D. at Cambridge, where in 1478 he wrote his ‘Margarita Eloquentiæ,’ in three books. This was printed at St. Albans, 4to,