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The book was again well received in Germany.

In 1803 he published ‘Nugæ Poeticæ,’ chiefly versifications of ‘Jack the Giant-Killer’ and ‘Guy of Warwick.’ Henceforth he devoted himself to archæology, philology, and history. In 1805 he published ‘Miscellanies, Antiquarian and Historical.’ In one dissertation he maintained that Hebrew was originally the east, and not the west, Aramaic dialect. Other papers dealt with English architecture, the rise and progress of English poetry, Saxon literature, and early English history. In 1808 appeared ‘Disquisitions,’ another collection of his prose works, dedicated to T. F. Middleton. He was also a frequent contributor to the ‘Quarterly Review.’

He died at Norwich on 16 Aug. 1817. A mural monument was erected to his memory in Norwich Cathedral by his heir, James Sayers. Sayers left large benefactions to local institutions, and bequeathed his library to the dean and chapter. His portrait, by Opie (1800), long hung in William Taylor's library, and passed at the latter's death to Amyot. Southey calls it one of Opie's happiest likenesses.

Sayers's work was appreciated by his contemporaries. Scott, writing on 20 June 1807 to acknowledge a copy of his collected poems, said he had long been an admirer of his ‘runic rhymes.’ In July 1801 Southey expressed to Taylor his indebtedness to Sayers for the metre of ‘Madoc’ (cf. Southey to Taylor, 23 Jan. 1803). In 1823 William Taylor published a collective edition of Sayers's works, with Opie's portrait engraved by W. C. Edwards as frontispiece, and an engraving of Sayers's house in the Close. Southey favourably reviewed the work in the ‘Quarterly’ for January 1827.

[Taylor's Memoir, prefixed to the Collective Works (1823) of Sayers, is divided into periods of seven years. It contains ample bibliographical information; on it is based the notice in Blomefield's History of Norfolk (1829), ii. 1064. Other authorities are Robberd's Memoir of Taylor, 2 vols. 1843; Mackintosh's Life of Sir James Mackintosh, i. 147, 377–80; Blakey's Hist. of Philosophy of Mind, iv. 83; Monthly Review, 1824, ii. 411; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits; Allibone's Dict. Engl. Lit. ii. 1943; Edinburgh Review, July 1879, article (by Henry Reeve probably) ‘The Worthies of Norwich.’]

G. Le G. N.


SAYERS or SAYER, JAMES (1748–1823), caricaturist, born at Yarmouth in August 1748, was son of the master of a trading vessel. He was at first articled as a clerk in an attorney's office at Yarmouth, and rose to be a member of the borough council. He quitted his profession on inheriting a small fortune from his father. Having already shown some skill in writing satirical poems at Yarmouth, Sayers now gave full bent to his inclination by becoming a caricaturist. The political and theatrical worlds supplied him with themes. He came to London about 1780 and espoused the cause of Pitt against Fox and the so-called advocates of republicanism. From 1783 onwards, for several years, he drew a series of caricatures, which were etched and published by the two Brethertons, mainly upon Fox, but subsequently upon Burke and other opponents of Pitt. These caricatures have next to no merit as works of art, but were so powerful and direct in their purpose that Fox is said to have declared that Sayers's caricatures did him more harm than all the attacks made on him in parliament or the press. Some of these were published in series, entitled ‘Illustrious Heads designed for a New History of Republicanism, in French and English,’ or ‘Outlines of the Opposition;’ others were caricatures on Fox's India Bill, the trial of Warren Hastings, and other current topics. When Pitt succeeded to office, he rewarded Sayers with the post of marshal of the court of exchequer. Sayers continued, however, to publish occasional caricatures and satirical poems, and on the death of Pitt in 1806 he wrote ‘Elijah's Mantle,’ which was wrongly assigned to Canning. Sayers died in Curzon Street, Mayfair, on 20 April 1823, and was buried in St. Andrew's, Holborn. His name is sometimes spelt Sayer, but on a portrait, drawn by himself and lithographed by M. Gaucir, he is described as ‘James Sayers, aged 65,’ and the name Sayers appears on some of his caricatures. A large collection of these is in the print-room at the British Museum, with a few etched portraits and other subjects.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Wright's Hist. of Caricature and Grotesque in Art; Sayers's own works.]

L. C.


SAYERS, TOM (1826–1865), pugilist, was born in Pimlico, now Tichborne Street, Brighton, on 25 May 1826, both his parents being Sussex people. His father was a shoemaker by trade, but Sayers became a bricklayer. He was first employed on the Brighton and Lewes railway, and afterwards (1848) on the London and North-Western railway at Camden Town. Though but 5 ft. 8½ in. in height, with a fighting weight which varied from 10st. 2lb. to 10st. 12lb., he was under rather than over the average of middle-weight champions; but so great were