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of philosophy, and from the university of Jena that of doctor of medicine. He accepted decorations from the governments of Prussia, Saxony, and France. He died at Berlin on 11 March 1865.

Schomburgk also wrote: 1. ‘A Description of British Guiana: exhibiting its Resources and Capabilities,’ 1840. 2. ‘The Natural History of the Fishes of Guiana’ 1843 (with portrait of the author) (Jardine, Naturalists' Library, vols. xxx. xxxi.). 3. ‘The History of Barbados; comprising a Description of the Island, a Sketch of the Historical Events, and an Account of its Geology and Natural Productions,’ 1848; this is an excellent work. Complete reports of his surveys of British Guiana for the British government, together with a letter containing some biographical details, were printed in Parliamentary Paper, Venezuela, No. 5 (1896), c. 8195.

For the Hakluyt Society he edited in 1848 ‘The Discovery of the Empire of Guiana by Sir W. Raleigh,’ and in 1849 he translated from the German of Henry William Adalbert, prince of Prussia, ‘Travels in the South of Europe and in Brazil.’

His brother, Richard Schomburgk (1811–1890), botanist, was born at Freiburg in Saxony in 1811, and educated at Berlin and Potsdam, paying special attention to botany, and receiving an appointment in the royal Prussian gardens at Sans-Souci, near Potsdam. In 1840 he accompanied Robert Schomburgk as botanist to the British Guiana boundary survey. He returned to Germany in 1842. In 1847 he published, in German, his account of the boundary expedition, dwelling chiefly on the botanic aspect, entitled ‘Reisen in Britisch-Guiana.’ Becoming involved in political troubles in Germany, he fled to South Australia after 1848 with another brother, Otto, and embarked in the cultivation of the vine, meeting with considerable success. In 1866 he became director of the botanic gardens at Adelaide. He died at Adelaide on 24 March 1890. He was a member of many scientific societies, and received several foreign decorations.

[Alerta! Dominicanos (a defence of Sir R. H. Schomburgk, consul at St. Domingo), Santiago, 1852; Foreign Office List, January 1865, p. 144; Journal Royal Geographical Soc. 1865, pp. cxxi–ii; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1891, xxxii. 240–3; information supplied by Mr. C. A. Harris of the Colonial Office.]

G. C. B.

SCHONAU, ANIAN de (d. 1293), bishop of St. Asaph, is said to have been a native of Schoonau in the Netherlands. Paquot (Hist. Littéraire des Pays-Bas, ii. 398), observing that Schoonau is in the diocese of Treves, conjectured that he was a native of Schoonhoven in Holland. Anian was a Dominican friar, and is possibly the Friar Anian who preached the crusade in West Wales in 1236 (Annales Cambriæ, Rolls Ser. p. 82). He was prior of the house of the Dominicans at Rhuddlan when, on 24 Sept. 1268, he was chosen bishop of St. Asaph. He was consecrated by Archbishop Boniface at St. Mary's, Southwark, on 21 Oct. following (Le Neve, Fasti Eccles. Angl. i. 67; Stubbs, Reg. Sacr. Angl. p. 45). Anian obtained grants of privileges from Llywelyn, prince of North Wales, in 1269, 1270, and 1275. He is said to have been confessor to Edward I, and to have accompanied him on his crusade. Edward confirmed him in the privileges of his see on 8 Nov. 1275, 20 Jan. 1276, and 15 Nov. 1277 (Deputy-Keeper Publ. Rec., 44th Rep. p. 11, 45th Rep. p. 78, 46th Rep. p. 83). The diocese suffered much during the troubles of the Welsh war, and Anian apparently sympathised with the Welsh. On 24 Nov. 1281 Archbishop Peckham appealed to Edward on behalf of Anian, whose privileges were disregarded by the royal justices (Registrum, i. 249). Early in 1282 the cathedral of St. Asaph was accidentally burnt. Anian apparently attributed it to design, and excommunicated the English soldiery. Peckham, while promising to intervene with the king, argued that the fire was an accident, and forbade Anian to leave the diocese. On 21 Oct. the archbishop cited Anian to appear and answer for his failure to excommunicate Welsh disturbers of the peace (ib. pp. 367, 422). The king seems about the same time to have had Anian arrested and detained in England, for on 17 Feb. 1283 Peckham appointed Robert Burnell [q. v.] to act as his commissary in the diocese during the absence of Anian (ib. pp. 496, 519). In 1284 Peckham proposed to visit the Welsh dioceses, and begged Edward to allow Anian to meet him in Wales, but without success. After his visitation Peckham once more approached Edward on the subject, pointing out that the bishop's absence was a hindrance to good government. At the same time he urged Anian to conciliate Edward by agreeing to the establishment of a Cistercian monastery at Meynau in his diocese (ib. pp. 675, 705, 724, 729). On this occasion Peckham was perhaps successful, for on 26 Sept. 1284 Edward remitted two hundred marks to Anian in compensation for damage to his property during the war (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1281–92, p. 135). In the ordinances which Peckham published after his visitation, he exhorted Anian to the necessity of living in amity with the English (Registrum, pp. 737–