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pension from government of 200l. per annum for herself and her two daughters, while her son, Daniel Frederick Ryan, became a barrister at Dublin, an assistant secretary in the excise office, London, and subsequently found a friend and patron in Sir Robert Peel.

[Madden's United Irishmen, 2nd edit. 2nd ser. pp. 433–7; Gent. Mag. 1798, i. 539, ii. 720; Lecky's Hist. of England, viii. 42–3; Fitzpatrick's Secret Service under Pitt, with Swan's own account from the Express of 26 May 1798; Castlereagh Corresp. i. 458–68; Moore's Life of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, ii. 82–90; Auckland Corresp. iii. 413–18; Reynolds's Life of Thomas Reynolds, ii. 230–6; Froude's English in Ireland, ed. 1881, iii. 393; information furnished by Ryan's grandson, Daniel Bishopp Ryan, esq., of Glen Elgin, New South Wales, and Mrs. Eleanor D. Coffey, Ryan's granddaughter.]

R. D.

RYAN, EDWARD, D.D. (d. 1819), prebendary of St. Patrick's, Dublin, second son of John Philip Ryan, by his wife, Miss Murphy, was born in Ireland. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, as a scholar, 1767, graduated B.A. 1769, M.A. 1773, LL.B. 1779, B.D. 1782, and D.D. in 1789. He was curate at St. Anne's, Dublin, from 1776, vicar of St. Luke's, Dublin, and prebendary of St. Patrick's from 16 June 1790 until his death in January 1819. Although some of his family were strictly catholic, Ryan strenuously attacked catholicism in a ‘History of the Effects of Religion on Mankind’ (vol. i. London, 1788, 8vo, vol. ii. 1793; 3rd ed. Edinburgh, 1806, 8vo). It was translated into French (‘Bienfaits de la Religion,’ Paris, 1810, 8vo). The proceeds of the publication Ryan devoted to the poor of the parish of St. Luke's. Other works by him are: 1. ‘A Short but Comprehensive View of the Evidences of the Mosaic and Christian Codes,’ &c., Dublin, 1795, 8vo. 2. ‘An Analysis of Ward's Errata of the Protestant Bible’ (published 1688), Dublin, 1808, 8vo; this was answered by Dr. Milner in ‘An Inquiry into certain Opinions concerning the Catholic Inhabitants of Ireland,’ &c.; 3rd ed. London, 1818. 3. ‘Letter to G. Ensor, &c., to which are added Reasons for being a Christian,’ Dublin, 1811, 8vo.

[Cat. of Grad. Trin. Coll. Dublin, p. 499; Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hib. ii. 163*, 185, v. 125; Biogr. Dict. of Living Authors, 1816, p. 303; Gent. Mag. 1819, i. 92; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 328, and 3rd ser. iii. 344; Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vii. 106, 137, 149, 183, 825; Monck Mason's History and Antiquities of St. Patrick's, App. pp. lxxxi, lxxxiv; information from C. M. Tenison, esq., of Hobart, Tasmania.]

C. F. S.

RYAN, Sir EDWARD (1793–1875), chief justice of Bengal and civil-service commissioner, second son of William Ryan, was born on 28 Aug. 1793. In the autumn of 1810 he matriculated from Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was the friend and contemporary of John F. W. Herschel, F.R.S., Charles Babbage, F.R.S., and George Peacock, F.R.S. Graduating B.A. in 1814, he directed his attention to the study of law, and on 23 June 1817 was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and went the Oxford circuit. His acquaintance with Herschel led him to join the Royal Astronomical Society in February 1820. In 1826 he was appointed a puisne judge of the supreme court of Calcutta and was knighted. He was promoted to the chief-justiceship of the presidency of Bengal in 1833. During his residence in Calcutta he exercised much hospitality and was very popular. In January 1843 he resigned his office and returned to England, and on 10 June 1843 was sworn a privy councillor, so that the country might have the benefit of his experience as a judge in cases of Indian appeals to the judicial committee of the privy council, a duty which he discharged until November 1865. He was gazetted a railway commissioner on 4 Nov. 1846, and served as assistant controller of the exchequer from 1851 to 1862. On the formation of the civil service commission, he was by an order in council dated 21 May 1855 named one of the first unpaid commissioners. In April 1862 he became first commissioner and a salaried officer, resigning the assistant-comptrollership of the exchequer and his membership of the judicial committee of the privy council. Under his presidency the scope of the commission was enlarged from year to year, the test examination of nominees for civil appointments being succeeded by limited competition as recommended by Lord Derby's committee of 1860, and that being followed by open competition as established by the order in council of June 1870. In addition, the commission from 1858 conducted the examinations for the civil service of India, and also for the admissions to the army. During all this period Ryan, assisted by his colleagues, was the guiding spirit, performing his duties with a rare tact and sagacity.

Ryan also took much interest in the prosperity of the university of London, of which he was a member of the senate, and from 1871 to 1874 vice-chancellor. He was a member of the council of University College, London, and was elected F.G.S. in 1846, and F.R.S. 2 Feb. 1860. He died at Dover on 22 Aug. 1875. He married, in 1814, Louisa,