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    of Glencree,’ an historical romance, London, 1878, 8vo.

He also published ‘The Education (Scotland) Act of 1872, with notes,’ London, 1873, 8vo, and wrote articles, ‘Budget,’ ‘Bullion,’ ‘Capital,’ ‘Commerce,’ ‘Corn Laws,’ ‘Corn Trade,’ ‘Exchange,’ &c., for ‘Encyclopædia Britannica’ (9th edit.).

[Private information; Allibone's Dict. of Authors, supplement vol. ii.]

E. I. C.

SOMERSAM, RICHARD (d. 1531), martyr. [See Bayfield, Richard.]

SOMERSET, Dukes of. [See Beaufort, John, first duke, 1403-1444; Beaufort, Edmund, second duke, d. 1455; Seymour, Edward, first duke of the Seymour family, 1506?-1552; Seymour, William, second duke, 1588-1600; Seymour, Charles, sixth duke, 1662-1748; Seymour, Edward Adolphus, eleventh duke, 1775-1855; Seymour, Edward Adolphus, twelfth duke, 1804-1885.]

SOMERSET, Earls of. [See Mohun, William de, fl. 1141; Carr, Robert, d. 1645.]

SOMERSET, CHARLES, Earl of Worcester (1460?–1526), born about 1460, was an illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, third duke of Somerset. In his childhood he was doubtless an exile in Flanders, for he was knighted by the Archduke Philip, then himself a child, before the battle of Bosworth. He was carefully looked after by Henry VII. Among the accounts for the coronation there is an entry of three yards of cloth of gold ‘for the bastard Somerset.’ On or before 1 March 1486 he was made captain of the yeomen of the guard, and on 1 March keeper of the park of Posterna, Derby, while on 9 March he had a large grant of forfeited estates. He seems to have been the king's cupbearer, and from 3 May 1486 till 25 Sept. 1503 was a knight of the body. He obtained the stewardship of Helmesley on 3 May 1487. At the beginning of 1488, when affairs in France and Brittany were in a critical position, Henry tried to assume the part of mediator, and to secure his authority he fitted out a fleet. The ships seem to have been hired from Spanish merchants. Somerset was placed in command of them as admiral on 20 Feb. 1487–8, his patent being repeated on 4 May. The battle of St. Aubin du Cormier followed on 28 July, and on 9 Sept. Francis II, duke of Brittany, died. Henry began to think of supporting the duke's daughter, Anne, and hence again on 1 Oct. 1488 Somerset was commissioned to go to sea. His ship was the Sovereign. He sailed in August 1489.

In September 1490 Somerset was sent to invest Maximilian with the order of the Garter at the time when an understanding was arrived at as to the protection of Brittany. About 23 April 1496 he became K.G., and on the 29th of the same month was named a commissioner of array for Wales. He was made a knight banneret on 17 June 1497, the date of the battle of Blackheath. On 7 April 1498 Charles VIII of France died, and, as Louis XII wished to continue the status created by the treaty of Étaples, Somerset was sent with others to Paris, and the treaty was solemnly ratified on 14 July 1498. He was present at the meeting between Henry and the Archduke Philip, which took place just outside Calais on 9 June 1500, and his close personal connection with the king was secured by his appointment, probably in 1501, as vice-chamberlain of the household. In this capacity he took part in the ceremonial connected with the reception of Catherine of Arragon in October and November 1501. Subsequently he and William Warham [q. v.] undertook an important embassy to Maximilian to secure the banishment of the Yorkist rebels, notably Edmund de la Pole, earl of Suffolk [q. v.], from the empire. The discussions were carried on at Antwerp, and finally resulted on 19 June 1502 in a general treaty of commerce, and on the promise of the payment of 10,000l. Maximilian gave a satisfactory undertaking as to the rebels. The commission as joint ambassador of 14 Aug. 1502 doubtless has reference to the later stages of these agreements.

In 1503 Somerset had several valuable grants, and on 21 Feb. 1503–4 he was styled Baron Herbert in right of his wife. On 28 Dec. 1504 he received the office of constable of Montgomery Castle, and early in 1505 he seems to have become a privy councillor. That he was thoroughly relied on may be gathered from the fact that he was entrusted with the delicate negotiations regarding Henry's French marriage scheme; he was at Blois with Louis XII very early in June 1505. He was rewarded for his long service by his creation as Baron Herbert of Ragland (sic), Chepstow, and Gower on 26 Nov. 1506, and by his appointment as chamberlain of the household about 30 May 1508.

Henry VIII continued Herbert in his appointments, creating him chamberlain of the household on the day after Henry VII's death, and subsequently adding to his grants. He went on the expedition of 1513, landing at Calais on 10 June. On 1 Feb. 1513–4 he