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(Vernon Collection) are four of Stanfield's pictures, ‘Entrance to the Zuyder Zee, Texel Island,’ the sketch for ‘The Battle of Trafalgar,’ ‘The Lake of Como,’ and ‘The Canal of the Giudecca and Church of the Jesuits, Venice;’ and at the South Kensington Museum (Sheepshanks' gift) are ‘Near Cologne,’ ‘A Market Boat on the Scheldt,’ ‘Sands near Boulogne,’ and (Townshend bequest) ‘A Rocky Bay.’ Other pictures by him are at the Garrick Club, of which he was an active member. ‘The Battle of Roveredo’ is at the Royal Holloway College, Egham. Many of his pictures have been engraved (two of them, ‘Tilbury Fort’ and ‘The Castle of Ischia,’ for the Art Union of London), and book illustrations after his sketches are to be found in Heath's ‘Picturesque Annual,’ 1832, &c., Brockedon's ‘Road-book from London to Naples,’ 1835, Stanfield's ‘Coast Scenery,’ 1836, Lawson's ‘Scotland Delineated,’ Mapei's ‘Italy,’ 1847, &c., Marryat's ‘Pirate and three Cutters,’ 1836, and ‘Poor Jack,’ 1840, Dickens's ‘Battle of Life,’ Tennyson's ‘Poems,’ 1857, and Tillotson's ‘New Waverley Album.’

George Clarkson Stanfield (1828–1878), second son of the second marriage of William Clarkson Stanfield, was born in London in 1828. He was the pupil of his father, and painted the same class of subjects. He exhibited seventy-three at the Royal Academy, and forty-nine at the British Institution from 1844 to 1876. He died in 1878.

[Cunningham's Lives (Heaton); Men of the Time; Redgrave's Dict.; Graves's (Algernon) Dict.; Bryan's Dict. (Graves and Armstrong); Ballantine's Life of David Roberts; Life and Letters of Charles Dickens; Pollock's Life of Macready; Dafforne's Pictures by Stanfield; Portfolio, viii. 69, x. 124, 135; Once a Week, xi. 675; The Hampstead Record, 27 Dec. 1890; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. xi. 301–2; private notes of Mr. Field Stanfield.]

C. M.

STANFIELD, JAMES FIELD (d. 1824), actor and author, was an Irishman who was educated in France for the Roman catholic priesthood. He did not take orders, but went to sea in a vessel engaged in the slave trade. After a terrible experience of the traffic at sea and for a short time on shore in Africa, he returned to England, one out of three survivors of the voyage. He renounced the sea and joined a theatrical company, appearing in 1786 at York, where he also tried his hand at writing a comic opera. His experience drove him into the ranks of the abolitionists, where he found many friends, including Thomas Clarkson [q. v.] In 1788 he published a vivid picture of his experience of the slave trade in a work called ‘Observations on a Guinea Voyage in a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson,’ and in the following year a vigorous poem called ‘The Guinea Voyage’ (London, 4to). In 1807 both works were published at Edinburgh in one volume. For several years he held a principal situation in the Scarborough Theatre, and he afterwards had the direction of a small company whose circuit (about 1812) was in the north of Yorkshire and some of the adjoining counties. In 1813 he published an ‘Essay on the Study and Composition of Biography’ (Sunderland, 8vo), a judicious performance, showing some erudition, but insisting overmuch upon the need of ‘moral illustration.’ He was twice married, and was father by his first wife, Mary Hoad (d. 1801) of Cheltenham, of Clarkson Stanfield [q. v.] He died in London on 10 May 1824.

[Baker's Biographia Dramatica; Monthly Review, vols. lxxix. and lxxxi.; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. xi. 301–2; Hampstead Record, 27 Dec. 1890; information from Mr. Field Stanfield.]

C. M.

STANFORD, CHARLES (1823–1886), divine, son of Joseph Stanford, shoemaker (d. 1862), was born at Green Lane, Northampton, on 9 March 1823. He was for some time a shoemaker, then a lawyer's clerk, and afterwards a bookseller's assistant. In 1839, at the age of sixteen, he commenced preaching, and on 22 Oct. 1841 entered the Baptist College at Bristol. His first pastorate was at Sparrow Hill, Loughborough, where he stayed from 1845 to Christmas 1846. On 7 March 1847 he became minister of the United Presbyterian and Baptist Church at Devizes, where his congregation gradually increased, and where he on 9 April 1852 opened a new chapel. In May 1858 he was elected co-pastor with Dr. Edward Steane of Denmark Place Chapel, Camberwell, Surrey; and in May 1861, on the retirement of Steane, received the full charge. He remained at Camberwell till his death. In 1860 he visited Taunton, where, and in the neighbourhood, he succeeded in collecting valuable information for his work, ‘J. Alleine, his Companions and his Times: a Memorial of Black Bartholomew.’ This was published in 1861.

In 1878 Stanford received the degree of D.D. from Brown's University, Rhode Island, America. He was the president of the London Baptist Association in 1882. From November 1881 he became almost blind from glaucoma, but prepared his work for the press with a typewriter. He died at 26 De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, on 18 March 1886, and was buried at Norwood on 24 March. He was twice married. In addition to many sermons and devotional treatises, he pub-