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opposed to that of Germany. England sympathized with America, and Germany with Spain. Just as in the Balkan and the Russo-Japanese wars, England had placed her hopes upon the conqueror, Germany had placed hers upon the conquered.

It is a matter of public knowledge what a rift the Boer War created between the English and the German people. These two nations have been divided according to their respective sympathies and interests ever since the famous wire of the Kaiser (1896), the seizure of the German ships (1900) and Chamberlain's speech which insulted the German Army. The opposition between England and Germany was so strong that public opinion in England objected when the Governments of the two countries intended to take common action against the Republic of Venezuela.

When Canada and England had decided to enter into closer economic relations with each other, the opposition between Germany and England was increased still further. All the other nations accepted this policy of Chamberlain's, but Germany, on the other hand, used this occasion as a pretext to impose certain Customs duties which contravened the fundamental principles of British imperialism.

The Balkan question, which some time ago had brought Germany and England into closer contact, began to increase the breach of these two countries more than ever in the 'nineties. Bismarck did not pursue any special policy in the Balkans, except possibly that he supported Austria-Hungary, which worked hand in