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and bandages of tarred cloth placed round the stem in spring will prevent the female from crawling up.

The codlin moth (Carpocapsa pomonana) lays its eggs in May in the calyx of the flowers. The young caterpillar, which is white with black head and neck, gnaws its way through the fruit, and pierces the rind. When nearly full grown it attacks the core, and the fruit soon drops. The insect emerges and spins its cocoon in a crack of the bark.

To check this disease the apples which fall before ripening should be promptly removed. A loosely made hay-band twisted round the stem about a foot from the ground is of use. The grubs will generally choose the bands in which to make their cocoon; at the end of the season the bands are collected and burned.

The following are a few of the most approved varieties of the apple tree, arranged in order of their ripening, with the months in which they are in use:—

Dessert Apples.
White Juneating July
Early Red Margaret Aug.
Irish Peach Aug.
Devonshire Quarrenden Aug., Sept.
Duchess of Oldenburg Aug., Sept.
Red Astrachan Sept.
Kerry Pippin Sept., Oct.
Peasgood's Nonesuch Sept.-Nov.
Sam Young Oct.-Dec.
King of the Pippins Oct.-Jan.
Cox's Orange Pippin Oct.-Feb.
Court of Wick Oct.-Mar.
Blenheim Pippin Nov.-Feb.
Sykehouse Russet Nov.-Feb.
Fearn's Pippin Nov.-Mar.
Mannington's Pearmain Nov.-Mar.
Margil Nov.-Mar.
Ribston Pippin Nov. Mar.
Golden Pippin Nov.-Jan.
Reinette de Canada Nov.-Apr.
Ashmead's Kernel Nov.-Apr.
White Winter Calville (grown under glass)    Dec.-Mar.
Braddick's Nonpareil Dec.-Apr.
Court-pendû Plat Dec.-Apr.
Northern Spy Dec.-May
Cornish Gilliflower Dec.-May
Scarlet Nonpareil Jan.-Mar.
Cockle's Pippin Jan.-Apr.
Lamb Abbey Pearmain Jan.-May
Old Nonpareil Jan.-May
Duke of Devonshire Feb.-May
Sturmer Pippin Feb.-June
Kitchen Apples.
Keswick Codlin Aug.-Sept.
Lord Suffield Aug.-Sept.
Manks Codlin Aug.-Oct.
Ecklinville Seedling Aug.-Nov.
Stirling Castle Aug.-Nov.
New Hawthornden Sept.-Oct.
Stone's Seedling Sept.-Nov.
Emperor Alexander Sept.-Dec.
Waltham Abbey Seedling Sept.-Jan.
Cellini Oct., Nov.
Gravenstein Oct.-Dec.
Hawthornden Oct.-Dec.
Baumann's Red Winter Reinette Nov.-Mar.
Mère de Ménage Oct.-Mar.
Beauty of Kent Oct.-Feb.
Yorkshire Greening Oct.-Feb.
Gloria Mundi Nov.-Jan.
Blenheim Pippin Nov.-Feb.
Tower of Glammis Nov.-Feb.
Warner's King Nov.-Mar.
Alfriston Nov.-Apr.
Northern Greening Nov.-Apr.
Reinette de Canada Nov.-Apr.
Bess Pool Nov.-May
Winter Queening Nov.-May
Lane's Prince Albert Oct.-May
Norfolk Beaufin Nov.-July

Apples for table use should have a sweet juicy pulp and rich aromatic flavour, while those suitable for cooking should possess the property of forming a uniform soft pulpy mass when boiled or baked. In their uncooked state they are not very digestible, but when cooked they form a very safe and useful food, exercising a gentle laxative influence.

According to Hutchison their composition is as follows:—

Water. Proteid. Ether
Carbohydrate. Ash. Cellulose. Acids.

Many exotic fruits, having nothing in common with the apple; are known by that name, e.g. the Balsam apple, Momordica Balsamina; the custard apple (q.v.), Anona reticulata; the egg apple, Solanum esculentum; the rose apple, various species of Eugenia; the pineapple (q.v.), Ananas sativus; the star apple, Chrysophyllum Cainito; and the apples of Sodom, Solanum sodomeum.  (A. B. R.) 

APPLEBY, a market town and municipal borough, and the county town of Westmorland, England, in the Appleby parliamentary division, 276 m. N.N.W. from London, on the Midland and a branch of the North Eastern railways. Pop. (1901) 1764. It is picturesquely placed in the valley of the Eden, which is richly wooded, and flanked on the north-east by spurs of Milburn Forest and Dufton and other fells, which rise up to 2600 ft. On a hill above the town stands the castle, retaining a fine Norman keep and surrounded by a double moat, now partly laid out as gardens. The remainder of the castle was rebuilt as a mansion in the 17th century. It was held for the royalists in the civil wars by Sir Philip Musgrave, and was the residence of Anne, countess of Pembroke, the last of the family of Clifford, which had great estates in this part of England. St Ann’s hospital for thirteen poor women (1654) was of her foundation. The grammar school (1453) was refounded by Queen Elizabeth. The modern incorporation dates from 1885, with a mayor, four aldermen and twelve councillors. Area, 1876 acres.

Appleby is not mentioned in any Saxon records, but after the Conquest it rose to importance as the head of the barony of Appleby which extended over the eastern portion of the present county of Westmorland. This barony formed part of the province of Carlisle granted by Henry I. to Ranulf Meschin, who erected the castle at Appleby and made it his place of residence. Appleby is a borough by prescription, and the old charter of incorporation, granted in the first year of James II., was very shortly abandoned. In 1292 we find the mayor and commonalty claiming the right to elect a coroner and to have tolls of markets and fairs. In 1685 the governing body comprised a mayor, aldermen, a town clerk, burgesses of the common council, a coroner and subordinate officers. An undated charter from Henry II. conceding to the burgesses the customs of York, was confirmed in 1 John, 16 Henry III., 14 Edward I., and 5 Edward III. John granted the borough to the burgesses for a fee-farm rent. The impoverishment caused by the Scottish raids led to its seizure by Edward II. for arrears of payment, but Edward III. restored it on the same terms as before. Henry VIII. reduced the fee-farm rent from 20 marks to 2 marks, after an inquisition which found that Appleby was burnt by the Scots in 1388 and that part of it still lay in ruins. The town, however, never seems to have regained its prosperity, and 16th and 17th century writers speak of it as a poor and insignificant village. Appleby returned two members to parliament from 1295 until disfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832. The market and the St Lawrence fair are held by prescription. James I. granted an additional fair on the second Thursday in April. In the early 18th century Appleby was celebrated for the best corn-market in the country.

See Victoria County History, Westmorland; W. Hewitson, Appleby Charters (Cumberl. and Westm. Antiq. and Archaeol. Soc., Transactions, xi. 279-285; Kendal, 1891).

APPLETON, NATHAN (1770-1861) American merchant and politician, was born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, on the 6th of October 1779. He was educated in the New Ipswich Academy, and in 1794 entered mercantile life in Boston, in the employment of his brother, Samuel (1766-1853), a successful and benevolent man of business, with whom he was in partnership