plenty of sport on a rod, though they are not as a rule welcomed. Lastly, it must be mentioned that certain of the Salmonidae, smelts (Osmerus eperlanus), sea-trout, occasionally brown trout, and still more occasionally salmon can be caught in salt water either in sea-lochs or at the mouths of rivers. Smelts are best fished for with tiny hooks tied on fine gut and baited with fragments of shrimp, ragworm, and other delicacies.
Modern Authorities and Reference Books.—History and Literature: Prof. A. N. Mayer, Sport with Gun and Rod (New York and Edinburgh), with a chapter on “The Primitive Fish-Hook,” by Barnet Phillips; Dr R. Munro, Lake Dwellings of Europe (London, 1890), with many illustrations and descriptions of early fish-hooks, &c.; H. Cholmondeley Pennell and others, Fishing Gossip (Edinburgh, 1866), contains a paper on “Fishing and Fish-Hooks of the Earliest Date,” by Jonathan Couch; C. D. Badham, Prose Halieutics (London, 1854), full of curious lore, relating, however, more to ichthyophagy than angling; The Angler's Note-Book and Naturalist's Record (London, 1st series 1881, 2nd series 1888), edited by T. Satchell, the two volumes containing much valuable matter on angling history, literature, and other topics; R. Blakey, Angling Literature (London, 1856), inaccurate and badly arranged, but containing a good deal of curious matter not to be found elsewhere; O. Lambert, Angling Literature in England (London, 1881), a good little general survey; J. J. Manley, Fish and Fishing (London, 1881), with chapters on fishing literature, &c.; R. B. Marston, Walton and Some Earlier Writers on Fish and Fishing (London and New York, 1894); Piscatorial Society's Papers (vol. i. London, 1890), contains a paper on “The Useful and Fine Arts in their Relation to Fish and Fishing,” by S. C. Harding; Super Flumina (Anon.; London, 1904), gives passim useful information on fishing literature; T. Westwood and T. Satchell, Bibliotheca Piscatoria (London, 1883) an admirable bibliography of the sport: together with the supplement prepared by R. B. Marston, 1901, it may be considered wonderfully complete.
Methods and Practice.—General Fresh-water Fishing: F. Francis, A Book on Angling (London, 1885), though old, a thoroughly sound text-book, particularly good on salmon fishing; H. C. Pennell and others, Fishing—Salmon and Trout and Pike and Coarse Fish (Badminton Library, 2 vols., London, 1904); John Bickerdyke, The Book of the All-Round Angler (London, 1900); Horace G. Hutchinson and others, Fishing (Country Life Series, 2 vols., London, 1904), contains useful ichthyological notes by G. A. Boulenger, a chapter on “The Feeding of Salmon in Fresh-Water,” by Dr J. Kingston Barton, and a detailed account of the principal salmon rivers of Norway, by C. E. Radclyffe.
Salmon and Trout.—Major J. P. Traherne, The Habits of the Salmon (London, 1889); G. M. Kelson, The Salmon Fly (London, 1895), contains instructions on dressing salmon-flies; A. E. Gathorne Hardy, The Salmon (“Fur, Feather and Fin Series,” London, 1898); Sir H. Maxwell, Bt., Salmon and Sea Trout (Angler's Library, London, 1898); Sir E. Grey, Bt., Fly Fishing (Haddon Hall Library, London and New York, 1899); W. Earl Hodgson, Salmon Fishing (London, 1906), contains a series of coloured plates of salmon flies; Marquis of Granby, The Trout (“Fur, Feather and Fin Series,” London, 1898). Wet Fly Fishing: W. C. Stewart, The Practical Angler (London, 1905), a new edition of an old but still valuable work; E. M. Tod, Wet Fly Fishing (London, 1903); W. Earl Hodgson, Trout Fishing (London, 1905), contains a series of admirable coloured plates of artificial flies. Dry Fly Fishing: F. M. Halford, Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory and Practice (London, 1902), the standard work on the subject; G. A. B. Dewar, The Book of the Dry Fly (London, 1897). Grayling: T. E. Pritt, The Book of the Grayling (Leeds, 1888); H. A. Rolt, Grayling Fishing in South Country Streams (London, 1905).
Coarse Fish.—C. H. Wheeley, Coarse Fish (Angler's Library, London, 1897); J. W. Martin, Practical Fishing (London); Float-fishing and Spinning (London, 1885); W. Senior and others, Pike and Perch (“Fur, Feather and Fin Series,” London, 1900); A. J. Jardine, Pike and Perch (Anglers Library, London, 1898); H. C. Pennell, The Book of the Pike (London, 1884); Greville Fennell, The Book of the Roach (London, 1884).
Sea Fishing.—J. C. Wilcocks, The Sea Fisherman (London, 1884); John Bickerdyke (and others), Sea Fishing (Badminton Library, London, 1895); Practical Letters to Sea Fishers (London, 1902); F. G. Aflalo, Sea Fish (Angler's Library, London, 1897); P. L. Haslope, Practical Sea Fishing (London, 1905).
Tackle, Flies, &c.—H. C. Pennell, Modern Improvements in Fishing Tackle (London, 1887); H. P. Wells, Fly Rods and Fly Tackle (New York and London, 1901); A. Ronalds, The Fly-Fisher's Entomology (London, 1883); F. M. Halford, Dry Fly Entomology (London, 1902); Floating Flies and How to Dress them (London, 1886); T. E. Pritt, North Country Flies (London, 1886); H. G. M'Clelland, How to tie Flies for Trout and Grayling (London, 1905); Capt. J. H. Hale, How to tie Salmon Flies (London, 1892); F. G. Aflalo, John Bickerdyke and C. H. Wheeley, How to buy Fishing Tackle (London).
Ichthyology, Fisheries, Fish-Culture, &c.—Dr Francis Day, Fishes of Great Britain and Ireland (2 vols., London, 1889); British and Irish Salmonidae (London, 1887); Dr A. C. L. G. Günther, Introduction to the Study of Fishes (London, 1880); Dr D. S. Jordan, A Guide to the Study of Fishes (2 vols., New York and London, 1905); F. Francis, Practical Management of Fisheries (London, 1883); Fish Culture (London, 1865); F. M. Halford, Making a Fishery (London. 1902); J. J. Armistead, An Angler's Paradise (Dumfries, 1902); F. Mather, Modern Fish-Culture (New York, 1899); Livingstone Stone, Domesticated Trout (Charlestown and London, 1896).
Angling Guide Books, Geographical Information, &c.—Great Britain: The Angler's Diary (London), gives information about most important waters in the British Isles, and about some foreign waters, published annually; The Sportsman's and Tourist's Guide to Scotland (London), a good guide to angling in Scotland, published twice a year; Augustus Grimble, The Salmon Rivers of Scotland (London, 1900, 4 vols.); The Salmon Rivers of Ireland (London, 1903); The Salmon and Sea Trout Rivers of England and Wales (London, 1904, 2 vols.), this fine series gives minute information as to salmon pools, flies, seasons, history, catches, &c.; W. M. Gallichan, Fishing in Wales (London, 1903); Fishing in Derbyshire (London, 1905); J. Watson, English Lake District Fisheries (London, 1899); C. Wade, Exmoor Streams (London, 1903); G. A. B. Dewar, South Country Trout Streams (London, 1899); “Hi Regan,” How and Where to Fish in Ireland (London, 1900); E. S. Shrubsole, The Land of Lakes (London, 1906), a guide to fishing in County Donegal). Europe: “Palmer Hackle,” Hints on Angling (London, 1846), contains “suggestions for angling excursions in France and Belgium,” but they are too old to be of much service; W. M. Gallichan, Fishing and Travel in Spain (London, 1905); G. W. Hartley, Wild Sport with Gun, Rifle and Salmon Rod (Edinburgh, 1903), contains a chapter on huchen fishing; Max von dem Borne, Wegweiser für Angler durch Deutschland, Oesterreich und die Schweiz (Berlin, 1877), a book of good conception and arrangement, and still useful, though out of date in many particulars; Illustrierte Angler-Schule (der deutschen Fischerei Zeitung), Stettin, contains good chapters on the wels and huchen; H. Storck, Der Angelsport (Munich, 1898), contains a certain amount of geographical information; E. B. Kennedy, Thirty Seasons in Scandinavia (London, 1904), contains useful information about fishing; General E. F. Burton, Trouting in Norway (London, 1897); Abel Chapman, Wild Norway (London, 1897); F. Sandeman, Angling Travels in Norway (London, 1895). America: C. F . Holder, Big Game Fishes of the United States (New York, 1903); J. A. Henshall, Bass, Pike, Perch and Pickerel (New York, 1903); Dean Sage and others, Salmon and Trout (New York, 1902); E. T. D. Chambers, Angler's Guide to Eastern Canada (Quebec, 1899); Rowland Ward, The English Angler in Florida (London, 1898); J. Turner Turner, The Giant Fish of Florida (London, 1902). India: H. S. Thomas, The Rod in India (London, 1897); “Skene Dhu,” The Mighty Mahseer (Madras, 1906), contains a chapter on the acclimatization of trout in India and Ceylon. New Zealand: W. H. Spackman, Trout in New Zealand (London, 1894); Capt. Hamilton, Trout Fishing and Sport in Maoriland (Wellington, 1905), contains a valuable section on fishing waters.
Fishery Law.—G. C. Oke, A Handy Book of the Fishery Laws (edited by J. W. Willis Band and A. C. M'Barnet, London, 1903).
ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies, and the United States, are the racial descendants of the “ten tribes” forming the kingdom of Israel, large numbers of whom were deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall of Samaria in 721 B.C. The theory (which is fully set forth in a book called Philo-Israel) rests on premises which are deemed by scholars—both theological and anthropological—to be utterly unsound.
ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE.—The French language (q.v.) came over to England with William the Conqueror. During the whole of the 12th century it shared with Latin the distinction of being the literary language of England, and it was in use at the court until the 14th century. It was not until the reign of Henry IV. that English became the native tongue of the kings of England. After the loss of the French provinces, schools for the teaching of French were established in England, among the most celebrated of which we may quote that of Marlborough. The language then underwent certain changes which gradually distinguished it from the French spoken in France; but, except for some graphical characteristics, from which certain rules of pronunciation are to be inferred, the changes to which the language was subjected were the individual modifications of the various authors, so that, while we may still speak of Anglo-Norman writers, an Anglo-Norman language, properly so called, gradually ceased to exist. The prestige enjoyed by the French language, which, in the 14th century, the author of the Manière de language calls “le plus bel et le plus gracious language