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ARLINGTON—ARM

the army, of responsibility for the Dutch War, and of embezzlement. But the motion for his removal, owing chiefly to the influence of his brother-in-law, the popular Lord Ossory, was rejected by 166 votes to 127. His escape could not, however, prevent his fall, and he resigned the secretaryship on the 11th of September 1674, being appointed lord chamberlain instead. In 1675 he made another attempt to gain favour with the parliament by supporting measures against France and against the Roman Catholics, and by joining in the pressure put upon Charles to remove James from the court. In November he went on a mission to the Hague, with the popular objects of effecting a peace and of concluding an alliance with William and James’s daughter Mary. In this he entirely failed, and he returned home completely discredited. He had again been disappointed of the treasurership when Danby succeeded Clifford; Charles having declared “that he had too much kindness for him to let him have it, for he was not fit for the office.”[1] His intrigues with discontented persons in parliament to stir up an opposition to his successful rival came to nothing. From this time, though lingering on at court, he possessed no influence, and was treated with scanty respect. It was safe to ridicule his person and behaviour, and it became a common jest for “some courtier to put a black patch upon his nose and strut about with a white staff in his hand in order to make the king merry at his expense.”[2] He was appointed a commissioner of the treasury in March 1679, was included in Sir William Temple’s new modelled council the same year, and was a member of the inner cabinet which was almost immediately formed. In 1681 he was made lord lieutenant of Suffolk. He died on the 28th of July 1685, and was buried at Euston, where he had bought a large estate and had carried out extensive building operations. His residence in London was Goring House, on the site of which was built the present Arlington Street.

Arlington was a typical statesman of the Restoration, possessing outwardly an attractive personality, and according to Sir W. Temple “the greatest skill of court and the best turns of art in particular conversation,”[3] but thoroughly unscrupulous and self-seeking, without a spark of patriotism, faithless even to a bad cause, and regarding public office solely as a means of procuring pleasure and profit. His knowledge of foreign affairs and of foreign languages, gained during his residence abroad, was considerable, but long absence from England had also taught him a cosmopolitan indifference to constitutions and religions, and a careless disregard for English public opinion and the essential interests of the country. According to Clarendon, he “knew no more of the constitution and laws of England than he did of China, nor had he in truth a care or tenderness for church or state, but believed France was the best pattern in the world.”[4] He was one of the chief promoters of the attempt to reintroduce into England arbitrary government after the French model, not because he imagined an absolute monarchy essential to the well-being and security of the state, but because under such an administration the favourites of a king enjoyed far greater privileges and profits than under a constitutional government. Of the same egotistical character was his religion, towards which his attitude was similar to that of Charles II. himself. He was credited with having inclined the king towards Romanism. Before the Restoration he had attended mass with the king abroad, and in opposition to Lord Bristol had urged Charles to declare publicly his conversion in order to obtain the long-expected succour from the foreign powers. But his religion sat lightly upon him as it did upon his master, and it was often convenient to disguise it. Like the king he continued to profess and practise Protestantism, and spent large sums in restoring the church at Euston; and, unlike Clifford, he took the Test in 1673 and remained in office, successfully concealing his faith till on his deathbed, when he declared himself an adherent of Roman Catholicism.[5]

He married Isabella of Beerwaert, daughter of Louis of Nassau, by whom he had one daughter, Isabella, who married Henry, duke of Grafton, the natural son of Charles II. and Lady Castlemaine.

Authorities.—In addition to those mentioned above, see Biographia Britannica (Kippis), accurate and careful, but too partial, and written without complete knowledge of Arlington’s career; Wood’s Fasti Oxonienses (Bliss), ii. 274; Hist. of Great Britain by J. Macpherson (1776), i. 132-133; Lauderdale Papers (Camden Soc. N.S., vols. 34, 36, 38), and MSS. in Brit. Mus.; Original Letters of Sir R. Fanshaw (1724); Letters from the Secretaries of State to Francis Parry (1817); Add. MSS. Brit. Mus. indexes; Cal. of State Pap. Dom., and Hist. MSS. Comm.—MSS. of Marquis of Ormonde, and Duke of Buccleugh at Montagu House, ii. 49.  (P. C. Y.) 

ARLINGTON, a township of Middlesex county in E. Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop. (1890) 5629; (1900) 8603, of whom 2387 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 11,187. Area, 5½ sq. m. It is served by the Boston & Maine railway. It has pleasant residential villages (Arlington, Arlington Heights, &c.) with attractive environs, and there is an excellent public library (the Robbins library). At Arlington Heights there are several well-known sanatoriums. Spy Pond (about 100 acres) is one of the prettiest bodies of water in the vicinity of Boston. Arlington is an important centre for market-gardening (in hot-houses), and along Mill Brook, in the township, are several factories, including chrome works, a large mill and a manufactory of pianoforte cases. In 1762 Arlington was made a “precinct” of Cambridge (of which it was a part from 1635 to 1807) under the name of Menotomy. In 1807 it became a separate township under the name (retained until 1867) of West Cambridge.

See B. and W. R. Cutter, History of the Town of Arlington ... 1637–1879 (Boston, 1880); and C. S. Parker, The Town of Arlington, Past and Present (Arlington, 1907).

ARLON, the chief town of the Belgian province of Luxemburg, situated on a hill about 1240 ft. above the sea. Pop. (1904) 10,894. It is a very ancient town, and in the time of the Romans was called Orolaunum, being a station on the Antoninian way connecting Reims and Trèves. Authorities dispute as to the origin of the name, some tracing it to Ara Lunae, a temple of Diana having been erected here, while others more plausibly derive it from the Celtic words ar (mount) and lun (wooded). Nowadays the woods have disappeared, and Arlon is chiefly notable for the extensive views obtainable from the church of St Donat which crowns the peak. Arlon is no longer fortified. When Vauban by order of Louis XIV. turned it into a fortress in 1671 great damage was done to the old Roman wall, the foundations of which were practically intact. In the local museum are many Roman antiquities collected on the spot, including several large sculptural stones similar to the celebrated monument at Igel near Trèves. In the middle ages Arlon was the seat of a powerful countship (later marquisate), held after 1235 by the dukes of Luxemburg. As an important strategic position it was several times seized by the French, e.g. in 1647 and 1651.

ARM (a common Teutonic word; the Indo-European root is ar, to join or fit; cf. the Lat. armus, shoulder, and the plural word arma, weapons, Gr. ἁρμός, joint, and the reduplicated ἀραρίσκειν, to join), the human upper limb from the shoulder to the wrist, and the fore limb of an animal. (See Anatomy: Superficial and Artistic, and Skeleton: Appendicular.) The word is also used of any projecting limb, as of a crane, or balance, of a branch of a tree, and so, in a transferred sense, of the branch of a river or a nerve. Through the Fr. armes, from the Lat. arma, and so in English usually in the plural “arms,” comes the use of the word for weapons of offence and defence, and in many expressions such as “men-at-arms,” “assault-at-arms,” and the like, and for the various branches, artillery, cavalry, infantry, of which an army is composed, the “arms of the service.” “Arms” or “armorial bearings” are the heraldic devices displayed by knights in battle on the defensive armour or embroidered on the surcoat worn over the armour and hence called “coats of arms.” These became hereditary and thus are borne by families, and similar insignia are used by nations, cities, episcopal sees and corporations generally. (See Heraldry.)

  1. James’s statement in Macpherson’s Orig. Pap. i. 67.
  2. Eachard’s History of England (1720), 911.
  3. Memoirs of W. Temple, ed. by T.P. Courtenay, ii. 27.
  4. Life and Con. 404.
  5. Cf. North’s Examen, 26; Dalrymple’s Mem. (1790) i. 40; Pepys’s Diary (Feb. 17, 1663); Cal. of Clarendon St. Pap. iii. 295; T. Carte’s Life of the Duke of Ormonde (1851), iv. 109.