to subjugate Egypt, but two expeditions were unsuccessful, and, in consequence, Sidon and the other Phoenician towns, and the princes of Cyprus, rebelled against Persia and defeated the Persian generals. After great preparations the king came in person, but again the attack on Egypt was repelled by the Greek generals of Nectanebus (346). One or two years later Artaxerxes, at the head of a great army, began the siege of Sidon. The Sidonian king Tennes considered resistance hopeless, and betrayed the town to the Persian king, assisted by Mentor, who had been sent with Greek troops from Egypt to defend the town. Artaxerxes repressed the rebellion with great cruelty and destroyed the town. The traitor Tennes was put to death, but Mentor rose high in the favour of the king, and entered into a close alliance with the eunuch Bagoas, the king’s favourite and vizier. They succeeded in subjecting the other rebels, and, after a hard fight at Pelusium, and many intrigues, conquered Egypt (343); Nectanebus fled to Ethiopia. Artaxerxes used his victory with great cruelty; he plundered the Egyptian temples and is said to have killed the Apis. After his return to Susa, Bagoas ruled the court and the upper satrapies, while Mentor restored the authority of the empire everywhere in the west. He deposed or killed many Greek dynasts, among them the famous Hermias of Atarneus, the protector of Aristotle, who had friendly relations with Philip (342 B.C.). When Philip attacked Perinthus and Byzantium (340), Artaxerxes sent them support, by which they were enabled to withstand the Macedonians; Philip’s antagonists in Greece, Demosthenes and his party, hoped to get subsidies from the king, but were disappointed.
In 338 Artaxerxes III., with his older sons, was killed by Bagoas, who raised his youngest son Arses to the throne. Artaxerxes III. is said never to have entered the country of Persia proper, because, being a great miser, he would not pay the present of a gold piece for every Persian woman, which it was usual to give on such occasions (Plut. Alex. 69). But we have a building inscription from Persepolis, which contains his name and genealogy, and invocations of Ahuramazda and Mithra.
ARTEDI, PETER (1705–1735), Swedish naturalist, was born in the province of Angermania, in Sweden, on the 22nd of February 1705. Intending to become a clergyman, he went, in 1724, to study theology at Upsala, but he turned his attention to medicine and natural history, especially ichthyology, upon the study of which he exercised great influence (see Ichthyology). In 1728 his countryman Linnaeus arrived in Upsala, and a lasting friendship was formed between the two. In 1732 both left Upsala, Artedi for England, and Linnaeus for Lapland; but before parting they reciprocally bequeathed to each other their manuscripts and books in the event of death. He was accidentally drowned on the 27th of September 1735 at Amsterdam, where he was engaged in cataloguing the collections of Albert Seba, a wealthy Dutchman, who had formed what was perhaps the richest museum of his time. According to agreement, his manuscripts came into the hands of Linnaeus, and his Bibliotheca Ichthyologica and Philosophia Ichthyologica, together with a life of the author, were published at Leiden in the year 1738.
ARTEGA, a tribe of African “Arabs,” said to be descendants of a sheik of that name who came from Hadramut in pre-Islamic days, settling near Tokar. The name is said to be “patrician,” and the Artega may be regarded as the most ancient stock in the Suakin district. They are now an inferior mixed race. They were all followers of the mahdi and khalifa in the Sudan wars (1883–1898).
ARTEL (Russ. for “gang”), the name for the co-operative associations in Russia. Originally, the artels were true examples of productive co-operation, bodies of working-men associating together for the purpose of jointly undertaking some piece of work, and dividing the profits. This original form of artel still survives among the fishermen of Archangel. Artels have come, however, to be little more than trade gilds, with mutual responsibility. (For details see Russia.)
ARTEMIDORUS. (1) A geographer “of Ephesus” who flourished about 100 B.C. After studying at Alexandria, he travelled extensively and published the results of his investigations in a large work on general geography (Τὰ γεωγραφούμενα) in eleven books, much used by Strabo and others. The original work is lost, but we possess many small fragments and larger fragments of an abridgment made by Marcianus of Heracleia (5th century), which contains the periplus of the Euxine and accounts of Bithynia and Paphlagonia. (See Müller, Geographi Graeci Minores; Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography; Stiehle, “Der Geograph Artemidoros von Ephesos,” in Philologus, xi., 1856). (2) A soothsayer and interpreter of dreams, who flourished in the 2nd century A.D., during the reigns of Hadrian and the Antonines. He called himself Daldianus from his mother’s birthplace, Daldis in Lydia, in order to make its name known to the world. His Ὀνειροκριτικά, or interpretation of dreams, was said to have been written by command of Apollo Daldianus, whose initiated votary he was. It is in four books, with an appendix containing a collection of prophetic dreams which had been realized. The first three books, addressed to Cassius Maximus, a Phoenician rhetorician (perhaps identical with Maximus of Tyre), treat of dreams and divination generally; the fourth—with a reply to his critics—and the appendix are dedicated to his son, also named Artemidorus and an interpreter of dreams. Artemidorus boasts of the trouble expended on his work; he had read all the authorities on dreams, travelled extensively, and conversed with all who had studied the subject. The work is valuable as affording an insight into ancient superstitions. According to Suidas, Artemidorus also wrote on augurs and cheiromancy, but all trace of these works is lost. (Editions: Reiff, 1805, Hercher, 1864; translation and notes, Krauss, 1881; English translation by Wood, 1644, and later editions.)
ARTEMIS, one of the principal goddesses in Greek mythology, the counterpart of the Roman Diana. The suggested etymologies of the name (see O. Gruppe, Griechische Mythologie, ii. p. 1267, note 2), as in the case of most of the Olympian deities, are unsatisfactory, and throw no light upon her significance and characteristics. The Homeric and later conception of Artemis, though by no means the original one, may be noticed first. She is the daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin-sister and counterpart of Apollo. She is said to have been born a day before him (on the 6th of the month) and tradition assigns them different birthplaces—Delos to Apollo, Ortygia to Artemis. But Ortygia (“home of quails”) applies still to Delos, and may well have been a synonym for that island. In its original sense it does not apply either to the island of Ortygia at Syracuse, or to Ortygia near Ephesus, which also claimed the honour of having been the birthplace of the goddess. Artemis is the goddess of chastity, an aspect of her character which gradually assumed more and more importance—the protectress of young men and maidens, who defies and contemns the power of Aphrodite. Her resemblance to her brother is shown in many ways. Like him, armed with bow and arrows, she deals death to mortals, sometimes gently and suddenly, especially to women, but also as a punishment for offences against herself or morality. With him she takes part in the combat with Python and with Tityus, in the slaughter of the children of Niobe, while alone she executes vengeance on Orion. Although Apollo has nothing to do with the earlier cult of Artemis, nor Artemis with that of Delphi, their association was a comparatively early one, and probably originated in Delos. Here the connexion of Artemis with the Hyperborean legend (see Apollo) is shown in the names of the maidens (Opis, Hecaerge) who were supposed to have brought offerings from the north to Delos, where they were buried. Both Opis (or Oupis) and Hecaerge are names of Artemis, the latter being the feminine of Hecaergos, an epithet of Apollo. Like her brother, she is not