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ATTESTATION—ATTICA

which some misunderstanding about public affairs at last dissolved. Pope found in Atterbury not only a warm admirer, but a most faithful, fearless and judicious adviser.

See F. Williams, Memoirs and Correspondence of Atterbury with Notes, &c. (1869); Stuart Papers, vol. i.: Letters of Atterbury to the Chevalier St George, &c. (1847); J. Nichols, Epistolary Correspondence, &c. (1783–1796); and H. C. Beeching, Francis Atterbury, (1909).

ATTESTATION (Lat. adtestare, attestare, to bear witness, testis, a witness), the verification of a deed, will or other instrument by the signature to it of a witness or witnesses, who endorse or subscribe their names under a memorandum, to the effect that it was signed or executed in their presence. The essence of attestation is to show that at the execution of the document there was present some disinterested person capable of giving evidence as to what took place. The clause at the end of the instrument, immediately preceding the signatures of the witnesses to the execution, and stating that they have witnessed it, is known as the attestation clause. In Scots law, the corresponding clause is called the testing-clause (see Deed; Will or Testament; Witness).

ATTHIS (an adjective meaning “Attic”), the name given to a monograph or special treatise on the religious and political history, antiquities and topography of Attica and Athens. During the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., a class of writers arose, who, making these subjects their particular study, were called atthidographi, or compilers of atthides. The first of these was Clidemus or Clitodemus (about 378 B.C.); the last, Ister of Cyrene (died 212 B.C.); the most important was Philochorus (first half of the 3rd century B.C.), of whose work considerable fragments have been preserved. The names of the other atthidographi known to us are Phanodemus, Demon, Androtion, Andron, Melanthius. They laid no claim to literary skill; their style was monotonous and soon became wearisome. They were in fact chroniclers or annalists—not historians. Their only object was to set down, in plain and simple language, all that seemed worthy of note in reference to the legends, history, constitution, religion and civilization of Attica. They followed the order of the olympiads and archons, and their work was supported by the authority of original documents, monuments and inscriptions. Their writings were much used by historians, as well as by the scholiasts and grammarians.

Fragments in Müller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, i.

ATTIC (i.e. “in the Attic style”), an architectural term given to the masonry rising above the main cornice of a building, the earliest example known being that of the monument of Thrasyllus at Athens. It was largely employed by the Romans, who in their arches of triumph utilized it for inscriptions or for bas-relief sculpture. It was used also to increase the height of enclosure walls such as those of the Forum of Nerva. By the Italian revivalists it was utilized as a complete storey, pierced with windows, as found in Palladio’s work at Vicenza and in Greenwich hospital. The largest attic in existence is that which surmounts the entablature of St Peter’s at Rome, which measures 39 ft. in height. The term is also employed in modern terminology to designate an upper storey in a roof, and the feature is sometimes introduced to hide a roof behind.

ATTICA, a district of ancient Greece, triangular in shape, projecting in a south-easterly direction into the Aegean Sea, the base line being formed by the continuous chain of Mounts Cithaeron and Parnes, the apex by the promontory of Sunium. It was washed on two sides by the sea, and the coast is broken up into numerous small bays and harbours, which, however, are with few exceptions exposed to the south wind. The surface of Attica, as of the rest of Greece, is very mountainous, and between the mountain chains lie several plains of no great size, open on one side to the sea. On the west its natural boundary is the Corinthian Gulf, so that it would include Megaris; indeed, before the Dorian invasion, which resulted in the foundation of Megara, the whole country was politically one, in the hands of the Ionian race. This is proved by the column which, as we learn from Strabo, once stood on the Isthmus of Corinth, bearing on one side in Greek the inscription, “This land is Peloponnesus, not Ionia,” and on the other, “This land is not Peloponnesus, but Ionia.”

The position of Attica was one main cause of its historical importance. Hence in part arose the maritime character of its inhabitants; and when they had once taken to the sea, the string of neighbouring islands, Ceos, Cythnos and others, some of which lay within sight of their coasts, and from one to another of which it was possible to sail without losing sight of land, served to tempt them on to further enterprises. Similarly on land, the post it occupied between northern Greece and the Peloponnese materially influenced its relation to other states, both in respect of its alliances, such as that with Thessaly, towards which it was drawn by mutual hostility to Boeotia, which lay between them; and also in respect of offensive combinations of other powers, as that between Thebes and Sparta, which throughout an important part of Greek history were closely associated in their politics, through mutual dread of their powerful neighbour.

The mountains of Attica, which form its most characteristic feature, are a continuation of that chain which, starting from Tymphrestus at the southern extremity of Pindus, passes through Phocis and Boeotia under the names Moun-
tains.
of Parnassus and Helicon; from this proceeds the range which, as Cithaeron in its western and Parnes in its eastern portion, separates Attica from Boeotia, throwing off spurs southward towards the Saronic Gulf in Aegaleos and Hymettus, which bound the plain of Athens. Again, the eastern extremity of Parnes is joined by another line of hills, which, separating from Mount Oeta, skirts the Euboic Gulf, and, after entering Attica, throws up the lofty pyramid of Pentelicus, overlooking the plain of Marathon, and then sinks towards the sea at Sunium to rise once more in the outlying islands. Finally, at the extreme west of the whole district, Cithaeron is bent round at right angles in the direction of the isthmus, at the northern approach to which it abuts against the mighty mass of Mount Geraneia, which is interposed between the Corinthian and the Saronic Gulf. Both Cithaeron and Parnes are about 4600 ft. high, Pentelicus 3635, and Hymettus 3370, while Aegaleos does not rise higher than 1534 ft. At the present day they are extremely bare, and in this respect almost repellent; but the lack of colour is compensated by the delicacy of the outlines, the minute articulation of the minor ridges and valleys, and the symmetrical grouping of the several mountains.

The soil is light and thin, and requires very careful agriculture not only on the rocky mountain sides but to some extent also in the maritime plains. This fact had considerable influence on the inhabitants, both by enforcing Soil. industrious habits and by leading them at an early period to take to the sea. Still, the level ground was sufficiently fertile to form a marked contrast to the rest of the district. Thucydides attributes to the nature of the soil (i. 2 τὸ λεπτόγεων), which presented no attraction to invaders, the permanence of the same inhabitants in the country, whence arose the claim to indigenousness on which the Athenians so greatly prided themselves; while at the same time the richer ground fostered that fondness for country life, which is proved by the enthusiastic terms in which it is always spoken of by Aristophanes. That we are not justified in judging of the ancient condition of the soil by, the aridity which prevails at the present day, is shown by the fact that out of the 182 demes (see Cleisthenes) into which Attica was divided, one-tenth were named from trees or plants.

The climate of Attica has always been celebrated. In approaching Attica from Boeotia a change of temperature is felt as soon as a person descends from Cithaeron or Parnes, and the sea breeze, which in modern times is called Climate. ὁ ἐμβάτης, or that which sets towards shore, moderates the heat in summer. The Attic comedians and Plato speak with enthusiasm of their native climate, and the fineness of the Athenian intellect was attributed to the clearness of the Attic atmosphere. It was in the neighbourhood of Athens itself that