the ground at the centre and 5 ft. 1 in. at the posts. The shuttlecock (or shuttle) has 16 feathers from 2½ to 2¾ in. long, and weighs from 73 to 85 grains. The racket (which is of no specified size, shape or weight) is strung with strong fine gut and weighs as a rule about 6 oz.
The game is for 15 or, rarely, for 21 aces, except in ladies' singles, when it is for 11 aces; and a rubber is the best of three games. Games of 21 aces are played only and always in matches decided by a single game, and generally in handicap contests. The right to choose ends or to serve first in the first game of the rubber is decided by tossing. If the side which wins the toss chooses first service, the other side chooses ends, and vice versa; but the side which wins the toss may call upon the other side to make first choice. The sides change ends at the beginning of the second game, and again at the beginning of the third game, if a third game is necessary. In the third game the sides change ends when the side which is leading reaches 8 in a game of 15 aces, and 6 in a game of 11 aces, or, in handicap games, when the score of either side reaches half the number of aces required to win the game. In matches of one game (21 aces) the sides change ends when the side which is leading has scored 11 aces. The side winning a game serves first in the next game, and, in the four-handed game, either player on the side that has won the last game may take first service in the next game.
In a game of 15 aces, when the score is “13 all” the side which first reaches 13 has the option of “setting” the game to 5, and when the score is “14 all” the side which first reaches 14 has the option of “setting” the game to 3, i.e. the side which first scores 5 or 3 aces, according as the game has been “set” at “13 all” or “14 all,” wins. In ladies' singles, when the score is “9 all” the side first reaching 9 may “set” the game to 5, and when the score is “10 all” the side which first reaches 10 may “set” the game to 3. In games of 21 aces, the game may be “set” to 5 at “19 all” and to 3 at “20 all.” There is no “setting” in handicap games.
In the four-handed game, the player who serves first stands in his right-hand half court and serves to the player who is standing in the opposite right-hand half court, the other players meanwhile standing anywhere on their side of the net. As soon as the shuttle is hit by the server's racket, all the players may stand anywhere on their side of the net. If the player served to returns the shuttle, i.e. hits it into any part of his opponents' court before it touches the ground, it has to be returned by one of the “in” (serving) side, and then by one of the “out” (non-serving) side, and so on, until a “fault” is made or the shuttle ceases to be “in play.” If the “in” side makes a “fault,” the server loses his “hand” (serve), and the player served to becomes the server; but no score accrues. If the “out” side makes a “fault,” the “in” side scores an ace, and the players on the “in” side change half courts, the server then serving from his left half court to the player in the opposite left half court, who has not yet been served to. Only the player served to may take the service, and only the “in” side can score an ace. The first service in each innings is made from the right-hand half court. The side that starts a game has only one “hand” in its first innings; in every subsequent innings each player on each side has a “hand,” the partners serving consecutively. While a side remains “in,” service is made alternately from each half court into the half court diagonally opposite, the change of half courts taking place whenever an ace is scored. If, in play, the shuttle strikes the net but still goes over, the stroke is good; but if this happens in service and the service is otherwise good, it is a “let,” i.e. the stroke does not count, and the server must serve again, even if the shuttle has been struck by the player served to, in which case it is assumed that the shuttle would have fallen into the proper half court. It is a “let,” too, if the server, in attempting to serve, misses the shuttle altogether. It is a good stroke, in service or in play, if the shuttle falls on a line, or, in play, if it is followed over the net with the striker's racket, or passes outside either of the net posts and then drops inside any of the boundary lines of the opposite court. Mutatis mutandis, the above remarks apply to the two-handed game, the main points of difference being that, in the two-handed game, both sides change half courts after each ace is scored and the same player takes consecutive serves, whereas in the double game only the serving side changes half courts at an added ace and a player may not take two consecutive serves in the same game.
It is a “fault” (a) if the service is overhand, i.e. if the shuttle when struck is higher than the server's waist; (b) if, in serving, the shuttle does not fall into the half court diagonally opposite that from which service is made; (c) if, before the shuttle is struck by the server, both feet of the server and of the player served to are not inside their respective half courts, a foot on a line being deemed out of court; (d) if, in play, the shuttle falls outside the court, or, in service or play, passes through or under the net, or hangs in the net, or touches the roof or side walls of the hall or the person or dress of any player; (e) if the shuttle “in play” is hit before it reaches the striker's side; (f) if, when the shuttle is “in play,” a player touches the net or its supports with his racket, person or dress; (g) if the shuttle is struck twice successively by the same player, or if it is struck by a player and his partner successively, or if it is not distinctly hit, i.e. if it is merely caught on the racket and spooned over the net; (h) if a player wilfully obstructs his opponent.
For full information on the laws of the game the reader is referred to the Laws of Badminton and the Rules of the Badminton Association, published annually (London). See also an article by S. M. Massey in the Badminton Magazine (February 1907), reprinted in a slightly revised form in the Badminton Gazette (November 1907). Until October 1907 Lawn Tennis and Badminton was the official organ of the Badminton Association; in November 1907 the Badminton Gazette became the official organ.
BADNUR, a town of British India, the headquarters of the district of Betul in the Central Provinces. It consists, besides the European houses, of two bazaars. Pop. (1901) 3766. There is a good serai or inn for native travellers, and a dak bungalow or resting-place for Europeans. Not far from Badnur is Kherla, the former residence of the Gond rajas, where there is an old fort, now in ruins, which used to be held by them.
BADRINATH, a village and celebrated temple in British India, in the Garhwal district of the United Provinces. It is situated on the right bank of the Vishnuganga, a tributary of the Alaknanda river, in the middle of a valley nearly 4 m. in length and 1 in breadth. The village is small, containing only twenty or thirty huts, in which reside the Brahmans and the attendants of the temple. This building, which is considered a place of high sanctity, is by no means equal to its great celebrity. It is about 40 or 50 ft. in height, built in the form of a cone, with a small cupola, on the top of which is a gilt ball and spire, and contains the shrine of Badrinath, dedicated to an incarnation of Vishnu. The principal idol is of black stone and is 3 ft. in height. Badrinath is a favourite resort of pilgrims from all parts of India. In ordinary years the number varies from 7000 to 10,000; but every twelfth year, when the festival of Kumbh-mela is celebrated, the concourse of persons is said to be 50,000. In addition to the gifts of votaries, the temple enjoys a further source of revenue from the rents of villages assigned by former rajas. Successive temples have been shattered by avalanches, and the existing building is modern. It is situated among mountains rising 23,000 ft. above the level of the sea. Elevation of the site of the temple, 10,294 ft.
BADULLA, the capital of the province of Uva, Ceylon, 54 m. S.E. of Kandy. It is the seat of a government agent and district judge, besides minor courts. It was in Kandyan times the home of a prince who ruled Uva as a principality. Badulla stands 2222 ft. above sea-level; the average annual rainfall is 79½ in.; the average temperature, 73°. The population of the town in 1901 was 5924; of the Badulla district, 186,674. There is a botanic garden; and the town, being almost encircled by a river—the Badullaeya—and overshadowed by the Naminacooly Kande range of mountains (highest peak 6680 ft.), is very
- The shuttle is “in play” from the time it is struck by the server's racket until it touches the ground, or touches the net without going over, or until a “fault” is made.