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of Augustus, at that time disinterred from the ruins of the Campus Martius, was described by Bandini in a learned folio volume De Obelisco Augusti. Shortly after he was compelled to leave Rome on account of his health and returned to Florence, where he was appointed librarian to the valuable library bequeathed to the public by the abbé Marucelli. In 1756 he was preferred by the emperor to a prebend at Florence, and appointed principal librarian to the Laurentian library. During forty-four years he continued to discharge the duties of this situation, and died in 1800, generally esteemed and regretted. On his deathbed he founded a public school, and bequeathed the remainder of his fortune to other charitable purposes. The most important of his numerous works are the Catalogus Codd. MSS. Graec., Lat., Ital., Bib., Laurent., 8 vols (1767-1778), and the Vita e Lettere d'Amerigo Vespucci, 1745.

BANDOLIER, or Bandoleer (from Fr. bandoulière, Ital. bandoliera, a little band), a belt worn over the shoulder, particularly by soldiers to carry cartridges. In the 17th century wooden cases were hung to the belt to contain powder charges. The modern bandolier carries the cartridges either in loops sewn to the belt, or in small pouches, similarly attached, containing strips of several cartridges. It has been extensively adopted in the British army, especially for mounted troops.

BANDON, or Bandonbridge, a market-town of county Cork, Ireland, in the south-east parliamentary division, picturesquely situated in a broad open valley on both sides of the river Bandon. Pop. (1901) 2830. It is 20 m. S.W. of the city of Cork by the Cork, Bandon & South Coast railway. It is an important agricultural centre and there are distilleries, breweries and flour-mills. The open park of Castle Bernard (earl of Bandon), on the riverside, is attractive, and 2 m. below Bandon on the river is Innishannon, the head of navigation. Bandon was founded early in the 17th century by Richard Boyle, earl of Cork, and was incorporated by James I. It returned two members to the Irish parliament and thereafter one to the Imperial parliament until 1885. After the destruction of the walls by the Irish in 1689, Bandon long resisted the admission of Catholic inhabitants.

BANEBERRY, or Herb Christopher, popular names for Actaea spicata (nat. ord. Ranunculaceae), a poisonous herb with long-stalked compound leaves, small white flowers and black berries, found wild in copses in limestone districts in the north of England. It is widely distributed in the north temperate zone.

BANÉR (Banner, Banier), JOHAN (1596-1641), Swedish soldier in the Thirty Years' War, was born at Djursholm Castle on the 23rd of June 1596. Entering the Swedish army, he served with distinction in the wars with Russia and Poland, and had reached high rank when, in 1630, Gustavus Adolphus landed in Germany. As one of the king's chief subordinates, Banér served in the campaign of north Germany, and at the first battle of Breitenfeld he led the right wing of Swedish horse. He was present at the taking of Augsburg and of Munich, and rendered conspicuous service at the Lech and at Donauwörth. At the unsuccessful assault on Wallenstein's camp at the Alte Veste Banér received a wound, and, soon afterwards, when Gustavus marched towards Lützen, his general was left in command in the west, where he was opposed to the imperial general Aldringer. Two years later, as Swedish field-marshal, Banér, with 16,000 men, entered Bohemia, and, combined with the Saxon army, marched on Prague. But the complete defeat of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar in the first battle of Nördlingen stopped his victorious advance. After this event the peace of Prague placed the Swedish army in a very precarious position, but the victories won by the united forces of Banér, Wrangel and Torstensson, at Kyritz and Wittstock (4th Oct. 1636), restored the paramount influence of Sweden in central Germany. Even the three combined armies, however, were decidedly inferior in force to those they defeated, and in 1637 Banér was completely unable to make headway against the enemy. Rescuing with great difficulty the beleaguered garrison of Torgau, he retreated beyond the Oder into Pomerania. In 1639, however, he again overran northern Germany, defeated the Saxons at Chemnitz and invaded Bohemia itself. The winter of 1640-1641 Banér spent in the west. His last achievement was an audacious coup-de-main on the Danube. Breaking camp in mid-winter (a very rare event in the 17th century) he united with the French under the comte de Guébriant and surprised Regensburg, where the diet was sitting. Only the break-up of the ice prevented the capture of the place. Banér thereupon had to retreat to Halberstadt. Here, on the 10th of May 1641, he died, after designating Torstensson as his successor. He was much beloved by his men, who bore his body with them on the field of Wölfenbuttel. Banér was regarded as the best of Gustavus's generals, and tempting offers (which he refused) were made him by the emperor to induce him to enter his service. His son received the dignity of count.

See Banérs Bref till Axel Oxenstjerna (Stockholm, 1893); B. P. von Chemnitz, Königlichen Schwedscher in Deutschland geführten Kriegs; Martin Veibull, Sveriges Storhedsted (Stockholm, 1881); Lundblad, Johan Banér (Stockholm, 1823); Ardwisson, Trittioariga Krigets maerkvaerdigaste personer (Stockholm, 1861).

BANFF, a royal, municipal and police burgh, seaport and capital of Banffshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 7161. It is beautifully situated on high ground, on the left bank of the mouth of the Deveron, 50 m. N.W. of Aberdeen by the Great North of Scotland railway. It is a place of great antiquity, its first charter having been granted by Malcolm IV. in 1163, and further privileges were conferred by Robert Bruce in 1324 and Robert II. in 1372. Of the old castle on the hill by the sea, in which Archbishop Sharp was born, scarcely a trace remains; but upon its site was erected the modern Banff Castle, belonging to the earl of Seafield. The chief public edifices include the county buildings; town hall, surmounted by a spire 100 ft. high; Chalmers hospital (founded by Alexander Chalmers of Clunie, a merchant and shipowner of the town); a masonic hall of tasteful design; and the academy, a modern structure in the Grecian style, to which there is attached an extensive museum, containing examples of the early mechanical genius of James Ferguson, the astronomer. Of the museum, which originally belonged to the defunct Banff Institution and was afterwards taken over by the town council, Thomas Edward—the "working naturalist," whose life was so sympathetically written by Samuel Smiles—was curator for a few years. The principal manufactures comprise woollens, leather, rope and sails, and there are also breweries, distilleries, iron foundries, brick-yards and timber-yards, besides some ship-building. The fishing trade is also important. The exports mainly consist of grain, cattle, fish, dairy produce and potatoes; the imports of coal and timber. There is a railway station at Bridge of Banff communicating, via Inveramsay, with Aberdeen, and another at the harbour, communicating with Portsoy and Keith. The burgh is under the jurisdiction of a provost and council, and unites with Macduff, Elgin, Cullen, Inverurie, Kintore and Peterhead in returning one member to parliament. The Cassie Gift arose out of a bequest by Alexander Cassie of London, a native of Banff, who left £20,000 to the poor of the town—the interest being divided twice a year. Duff House, immediately adjoining the town, is a seat of the duke of Fife. It was built in 1740-1745, after designs by Robert Adam, at a cost of £70,000. The duke of Cumberland rested here on the way to Culloden. The house contains a fine collection of pictures and an interesting armoury. The park is nearly ten miles in circumference. The house, together with that portion of the park immediately surrounding it (about 140 acres), was presented to the towns of Banff and Macduff by the duke of Fife in November 1906.

BANFFSHIRE, a north-eastern county of Scotland, bounded N. by the Moray Firth, E. and S. by Aberdeenshire, and W. by Elgin and Inverness. It has an area of 403,364 acres, or 633½ sq. m. The surface is diversified. The northern half is mostly a fine, open, undulating country of rich, highly-cultivated soil. The southern is mountainous, but extensive farms are found in its fertile glens. Some of the mountains are thick with forests, some present a beautiful intermixture of rock and copse, while others are covered with brown heath. The principal mountains are all in the south; among them are Cairngorm, on the confines