Deaf and Dumb at Hartford, Connecticut, and a teacher (1832-1838) in the New York Institute for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. From 1838 to 1848 he was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, and from 1848 to 1854 was professor of chemistry and natural history in the University of Alabama, for two years, also, filling the chair of English literature. In 1854 he was ordained as deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church. In the same year he became professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in the University of Mississippi, of which institution he was chancellor from 1856 until the outbreak of the Civil War, when, his sympathies being with the North, he resigned and went to Washington. There for some time he was in charge of the map and chart department of the United States Coast Survey. In 1864 he became the tenth president of Columbia College (now Columbia University) in New York City, which position he held until the year before his death, his service thus being longer than that of any of his predecessors. During this period the growth of the college was rapid; new departments were established; the elective system was greatly extended; more adequate provision was made for graduate study and original research, and the enrolment was increased from about 150 to more than 1000 students. Barnard strove to have educational privileges extended by the university to women as well as to men, and Barnard College, for women (see Columbia University), established immediately after his death, was named in his honour. He died in New York City on the 27th of April 1889. Barnard was a versatile man, of catholic training, a classical and English scholar, a mathematician, a physicist, and a chemist, a good public speaker, and a vigorous but somewhat prolix writer on various subjects, his annual reports to the Board of Trustees of Columbia being particularly valuable as discussions of educational problems. Besides being the editor-in-chief, in 1872, of Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia, he published a Treatise on Arithmetic (1830); an Analytical Grammar with Symbolic Illustration (1836); Letters on Collegiate Government (1855); and Recent Progress in Science (1869).
See John Fulton's Memoirs of Frederick A. P. Barnard (New York, 1896).
BARNARD, GEORGE GREY, (1863- ), American sculptor, was born at Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, on the 24th of May 1863. He first studied at the Art Institute, Chicago, and in 1883-1887 worked in P. T. Cavelier's atelier at Paris. He lived in Paris for twelve years, returning to America in 1896; and with his first exhibit at the Salon of 1894 he scored a great success. His principal works include, "The Boy" (1885); "Cain" (1886), later destroyed; "Brotherly Love," sometimes called "Two Friends" (1887); the allegorical "Two Natures" (1894, in the Metropolitan Museum, New York City); "The Hewer" (1902, at Cairo, Illinois); "Great God Pan" (in Central Park, New York City); the "Rose Maiden"; the simple and graceful "Maidenhood"; and sculptural decorations for the new Capitol building for the state of Pennsylvania at Harrisburg.
BARNARD, HENRY (1811-1900), American educationalist, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 24th of January 1811. He graduated at Yale in 1830, and in 1835 was admitted to the Connecticut bar. In 1837-1839 he was a member of the Connecticut legislature, effecting in 1838 the passage of a bill, framed and introduced by himself, which provided for "the better supervision of the common schools" and established a board of "commissioners of common schools" in the state. Of this board he was the secretary from 1838 till its abolition in 1842, and during this time worked indefatigably to reorganize and reform the common school system of the state, thus earning a national reputation as an educational reformer. In 1843 he was appointed by the governor of Rhode Island agent to examine the public schools of the state, and recommended improvements; and his work resulted in the reorganization of the school system two years later. From 1845 to 1849 he was the first commissioner of public schools in the state, and his administration was marked by a decided step in educational progress. Returning to Connecticut, he was, from 1851 to 1855, "superintendent of common schools," and principal of the State Normal School at New Britain, Conn. From 1859 to 1860 he was chancellor of the University of Wisconsin and agent of the board of regents of the normal school fund; in 1866 he was president of St John's College, Annapolis, Maryland; and from 1867 to 1870 he was the first United States commissioner of education, and in this position he laid the foundation for the subsequent useful work of the Bureau of Education. His chief service to the cause of education, however, was rendered as the editor, from 1855 to 1881, of the American Journal of Education, the thirty-one volumes of which are a veritable encyclopaedia of education, one of the most valuable compendiums of information on the subject ever brought together through the agency of any one man. He also edited from 1838 to 1842, and again from 1851 to 1854, the Connecticut Common School Journal, and from 1846 to 1849 the Journal of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction. He died at Hartford, Conn., on the 5th of July 1900. Among American educational reformers, Barnard is entitled to rank next to Horace Mann of Massachusetts.
See a biographical sketch by A. D. Mayo in the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1896-1897 (Washington, 1898), and W. S. Monroe's Educational Labours of Henry Barnard (Syracuse, 1893).
BARNARD, JOHN, English musician, was a minor canon of St Paul's in the reign of Charles I. He was the first to publish a collection of English cathedral music. It contains some of the finest 16th-century masterpieces, ranging from the "faux-bourdon" style of Tallis's Pieces and Responses to the most developed types of full anthem. The text, however, is not trustworthy.
BARNARD CASTLE, a market-town in the Barnard Castle parliamentary division of Durham, England, 17 m. W. of Darlington by a branch of the North Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 4421. It is beautifully situated on the steep left bank of the Tees. A noteworthy building in the town is the octagonal town-hall, dating from 1747. There are a few picturesque old houses, and a fragment of an Augustinian convent. St Mary's church, in a variety of styles from Norman onward, contains some curious monuments; but the building of chief interest is the castle, which gives the town its name, and is the principal scene of Sir Walter Scott's Rokeby. The remains extend over a space of more than six acres. A remarkable building known as the Bowes' Mansion and Museum, bequeathed in 1874 to the town by a descendant of Sir George Bowes, contains a valuable collection of works of art. In the vicinity of the town are Egglestone Abbey, beautifully situated on the Yorkshire bank of the river, Rokeby Park on the same bank, at the confluence of the Greta, and the massive 14th century castle of Raby to the north-east. The principal manufacture is shoe-thread. The corn-market is important.
As part of the lordship of Gainford, Barnard Castle is said to have been granted by William Rufus to Guy Baliol Bernard, son of Guy Baliol, who built the castle, and called it after himself, Castle Bernard. To the men of the town which grew up outside the castle walls he gave, about the middle of the 12th century, a charter making them burgesses and granting them the same privileges as the town of Richmond in Yorkshire. This charter was confirmed by Bernard Baliol, son of the above Bernard. Other confirmation charters were granted to the town by Hugh, John, and Alexander Baliol. The castle and lordship remained in the hands of the Baliols until John Baliol, king of Scotland, forfeited them with his other English estates in 1296. Barnard Castle was then seized by Anthony, bishop of Durham, as being within his palatinate of Durham. Edward I., however, denied the bishop's rights and granted the castle and town to Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, whose descendants continued to hold them until they passed to the crown by the marriage of Anne Nevill with Richard III., then duke of Gloucester. In 1630 Barnard Castle was sold to Sir Henry Vane, and in the same year the castle is said to have been unroofed and dismantled for the sake of the materials of which it was built. Tanning leather was formerly one of the chief industries of the town. In 1614 an act for "knights and burgesses to have place in parliament for the county palatine and city of Durham and borough of Barnard