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one of the three appointed to conduct them back to Paris. On the journey he was deeply affected by the mournful fate of Marie-Antoinette, and resolved to do what he could to alleviate their sufferings. In one of his most powerful speeches he maintained the inviolability of the king's person. His public career came to an end with the close of the Constituent Assembly, and he returned to Grenoble at the beginning of 1792. His sympathy and relations with the royal family, to whom he had submitted a plan for a counter-revolution, and his desire to check the downward progress of the Revolution, brought on him suspicion of treason. Denounced (15th of August 1792) in the Legislative Assembly, he was arrested and imprisoned for ten months at Grenoble, then transferred to Fort Barraux, and in November 1793 to Paris. The nobility of his character was proof against the assaults of suffering. "Better to suffer and to die," he said, "than lose one shade of my moral and political character." On the 28th of November he appeared before the Revolutionary Tribunal. He was condemned on the evidence of papers found at the Tuileries and executed the next day, with Duport-Dutertre.

Barnave's Œuvres posthumes were published in 1842 by Bérenger (de la Drôme) in 4 vols. See F. A. Aulard, Les Orateurs de l'assemblée constituante (Paris, 1882).

BARNBY, SIR JOSEPH (1838-1896), English musical composer and conductor, son of Thomas Barnby, an organist, was born at York on the 12th of August 1838. He was a chorister at York minster from the age of seven, was educated at the Royal Academy of Music under Cipriani Potter and Charles Lucas, and was appointed in 1862 organist of St Andrew's, Wells Street, London, where he raised the services to a high degree of excellence. He was conductor of "Barnby's Choir" from 1864, and in 1871 was appointed, in succession to Gounod, conductor of the Albert Hall Choral Society, a post he held till his death. In 1875 he was precentor and director of music at Eton, and in 1892 became principal of the Guildhall School of Music, receiving the honour of knighthood in July of that year. His works include an oratorio Rebekah, Ps. xcvii., many services and anthems, and two hundred and forty-six hymn-tunes (published in 1897 in one volume), as well as some part-songs (among them the popular "Sweet and Low"), and some pieces for the organ. As a conductor he possessed the qualities as well as the defects of the typical north-countryman; if he was wanting in the higher kind of imagination or ideality, he infused into those who sang under him something of his own rectitude and precision. He was largely instrumental in stimulating the love for Gounod's sacred music among the less educated part of the London public, although he displayed little practical sympathy with opera. On the other hand, he organized a remarkable concert performance of Parsifal at the Albert Hall in London in 1884. He conducted the Cardiff Festivals of 1892 and 1895. He died in London on the 28th of January 1896, and after a special service in St Paul's cathedral was buried in Norwood Cemetery.

BARNES, ALBERT (1798-1870), American theologian, was born at Rome, New York, on the 1st of December 1798. He graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, N.Y., in 1820, and at the Princeton Theological Seminary in 1823, was ordained as a Presbyterian minister by the presbytery of Elizabethtown, New Jersey, in 1825, and was the pastor successively of the Presbyterian Church in Morristown, New Jersey (1825-1830) and of the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia (1830-1867). He held a prominent place in the New School branch of the Presbyterians, to which he adhered on the division of the denomination in 1837; he had been tried (but not convicted) for heresy in 1836, the charge being particularly against the views expressed by him in Notes on Romans (1835) of the imputation of the sin of Adam, original sin and the atonement; the bitterness stirred up by this trial contributed towards widening the breach between the conservative and the progressive elements in the church. He was an eloquent preacher, but his reputation rests chiefly on his expository works, which are said to have had a larger circulation both in Europe and America than any others of their class. Of the well-known Notes on the New Testament it is said that more than a million volumes had been issued by 1870. The Notes on Job, the Psalms, Isaiah and Daniel, found scarcely less acceptance. Displaying no original critical power, their chief merit lies in the fact that they bring in a popular (but not always accurate) form the results of the criticism of others within the reach of general readers. Barnes was the author of several other works of a practical and devotional kind, and a collection of his Theological Works was published in Philadelphia in 1875. He died in Philadelphia on the 24th of December 1870.

BARNES, BARNABE (1569?-1609), English poet, fourth son of Dr Richard Barnes, bishop of Durham, was born in Yorkshire, perhaps at Stonegrave, a living of his father's, in 1568 or 1569. In 1586 he was entered at Brasenose College, Oxford, where Giovanni Florio was his servitor, and in 1591 went to France with the earl of Essex, who was then serving against the prince of Parma. On his return he published Parthenophil and Parthenophe, Sonnettes, Madrigals, Elegies and Odes (ent. on Stationers' Register 1593), dedicated to his "dearest friend," William Percy, who contributed a sonnet to the eulogies prefixed to a later work, Offices. Parthenophil was possibly printed for private circulation, and the copy in the duke of Devonshire's library is believed to be unique. Barnes was well acquainted with the work of contemporary French sonneteers, to whom he is largely indebted, and he borrows his title, apparently, from a Neapolitan writer of Latin verse, Hieronymus Angerianus. It is possible to outline a story from this series of love lyrics, but the incidents are slight, and in this case, as in other Elizabethan sonnet-cycles, it is difficult to dogmatize as to what is the expression of a real personal experience, and what is intellectual exercise in imitation of Petrarch. Parthenophil abounds in passages of great freshness and beauty, although its elaborate conceits are sometimes over-ingenious and strained. Barnes took the part of Gabriel Harvey and even experimented in classical metres. This partisanship is sufficient to account for the abuse of Thomas Nashe, who accused him, apparently on no proof at all, of stealing a nobleman's chain at Windsor, and of other things. Barnes's second work, A Divine Centurie of Spirituall Sonnetts, appeared in 1595. He also wrote two plays:—The Divil's Charter (1607), a tragedy dealing with the life of Pope Alexander VI., which was played before the king; and The Battle of Evesham (or Hexham), of which the MS., traced to the beginning of the 18th century, is lost. In 1606 he dedicated to King James Offices enabling privat Persons for the speciall service of all good Princes and Policies, a prose treatise containing, among other things, descriptions of Queen Elizabeth and of the earl of Essex. Barnes was buried at Durham in December 1609.

His Parthenophil and Spirituall Sonnetts were edited by Dr A. B. Grosart in a limited issue in 1875; Parthenophil was included by Prof. E. Arber in vol. v. of An English Garner; see also the new edition of An English Garner (Elizabethan Sonnets, ed. S. Lee, 1904, pp. lxxv. et seq.). Professor E. Dowden contributed a sympathetic criticism of Barnes to The Academy of Sept. 2, 1876.

BARNES, SIR EDWARD (1776-1838), British soldier, entered the 47th regiment in 1792, and quickly rose to field rank. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1807, and colonel in 1810, and two years later went to the Peninsula to serve on Wellington's staff. His services in this capacity gained him further promotion, and as a major-general he led a brigade at Vittoria and in the Pyrenean battles. He had the cross and three clasps for his Peninsula service. As adjutant-general he served in the campaign of 1815 and was wounded at Waterloo. Already a K.C.B., he now received the Austrian order of Maria Theresa, and the Russian order of St Anne. In 1819 began his connexion with Ceylon, of which island he was governor from 1824 to 1831. He directed the construction of the great military road between Colombo and Kandy, and of many other lines of communication, made the first census of the population, and introduced coffee cultivation on the West Indian system (1824). In 1831 he received the G.C.B., and from 1831 to 1853 he was commander-in-chief in India, with the local rank of general. On his return home, after two unsuccessful attempts to secure the seat, he became M.P. for Sudbury in 1837, but he died in the following