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possessing little attraction or advantage, calls nevertheless for first consideration. Cambridge, in fact, owed its growth to its position on a natural line of communication between the east and the midlands of England, flanked on the one hand by the deep forests which covered the uplands, on the other by the unreclaimed fens, then desolate and in great part impenetrable. The importance of this highway may be judged from the number of early earthworks in the vicinity of Cambridge; and the Castle Hill, at the north side of the present town (near the west bank of the river), is perhaps a British work. Roman remains discovered in the same locality give evidence of the existence of a small town or village at the junction of roads; the name of Camboritum is usually attached to it, but without certainty. The modern name of Cambridge has no Connexion with this. The present form of the name has usually been derived from a corruption of the original name Grantebrycge or Grantabridge (Skeat); but Mr Arthur Gray points out that there is no documentary evidence for this corruption in the shape of such probable intermediate forms as Grantebrig or Crantebrig. On the other hand, he brings evidence to show that the name Cantebrig, though not applied to the whole town, was very early given to that quarter of it near the Cante brig, i.e. the bridge over the Cante (the ward beyond the Great Bridge was called “Parcelle of Cambridge” as late as 1340); in this quarter, close to the bridge, Cambridge castle was built by the Conqueror, and from the castle and the castle quarter the name spread within sixty years to the whole town, the similarity between the names Grantebrig and Cantebrig playing some part in this extension (The Dual Origin of the Town of Cambridge, p. 31). Granta is the earlier and still an alternative name of the river Cam, this more common modern form having been adopted in sympathy with the modern name of the town. Cambridge had a further importance from its position at the head of river navigation, and a charter of Henry I., in which the town is already referred to as a borough, grants it exclusive rights as a river-port, and regulates traffic and tolls. The wharves lay principally along that part of the river where are now the celebrated “backs” of some of the colleges, whose exquisite grounds slope down to the water. The great Sturbridge or Stourbridge Fair at Barnwell, formerly one of the most important in England, is a further illustration of the ancient commercial importance of Cambridge; the oldest known charter concerning it dates from the opening of the 13th century, though its initiation may perhaps be placed a century before.

Concerning the early municipal history of Cambridge little is known, but at the time of the Domesday survey its citizens felt themselves strong enough to protest against the ex actions of the Norman sheriff, Roger Picot; and the town had attained a considerable degree of importance when, in 1068, William the Conqueror built a castle on the site known as Castle Hill, and used it as a base of operations against Hereward the Wake and the insurgents of the fenland. Cambridge, however, has practically no further military history. From the 14th century onward materials were taken from the castle by the builders of colleges, while the gatehouse, the last surviving portion, was removed in 1842.

The medieval spirit of emulation between the universities of Cambridge and Oxford resulted in a series of remarkable fables to account for the foundation of both. That of Cambridge was assigned to a Spanish prince, Cantaber, in the 4321st year after the Creation. A charter from King Arthur dated 531, and the transference of students from Cambridge to Oxford by King Alfred, were also claimed as historical facts. The true germ of the university is to be sought in the religious foundations in the town. The earliest to be noticed is the Augustinian house of St Giles, founded by Hugoline, wife of Roger Picot the sheriff, in 1092; this was removed in 1112 to Barnwell, Where the chapel dedicated to St Andrew the Less is practically the sole remnant of its buildings. In 1224 the Franciscans came to Cambridge, and later in the same century a number of other religious orders settled here, such as the Dominicans, the Gilbertines and the Carmelites, who had before been established at Newnham. Students were gradually attracted to these several religious houses, and Cambridge was already recognized as a centre of learning when, in 1231, Henry III. issued a writ for its governance as such, among other provisions conferring certain disciplinary powers on the bishop of Ely. It soon became evident that the influence of the religious orders on those who came to them for instruction was too narrow. This was recognized elsewhere, for it was in order to counteract that influence that Walter de Merton drew up the statute of governance for his foundation of Merton College, Oxford, a statute which was soon afterwards used as a model by Hugh de Balsham, bishop of Ely, when, in 1281-1284 he founded the first Cambridge college, Peterhouse.

The friction between town and university, due in the main to the conflict of their jurisdictions, the tradition of which, as in the sister university, died hard in the annual efforts of some undergraduates to revive the “town and gown” riots, culminated during the rebellion of Wat Tyler (1581) in an episode which is alone worthy of record and may serve to illustrate the whole. This was an attack by the rabble, instigated, it is said, by the more reputable townspeople, on the colleges, several of which were sacked. The attack was ultimately defeated by the courage and resource of Henry Spenser or Le Dispencer, bishop of Norwich. The relations of the university of Cambridge with the crown were never so intimate as those of Oxford. Henry III. fortified the town with two gates, but these were burnt by the rebellious barons; and in much later times the two first of the Stuart kings, and the two first of the Georges, cultivated friendly personal relations with the university. During the civil war the colleges even melted down their plate for the war chest of King Charles; but Cambridge showed little of the stubborn royalism of Oxford, and submitted to the Commonwealth without serious resistance.

The history of collegiate foundation in Cambridge after that of Peterhouse may be followed through the ensuing description of the colleges, but for ease of reference these are dealt with in alphabetical order.Colleges. The main street which traverses the town from south to north, parallel to, and at a short distance from the river, is known successively as Trumpington Street, King's Parade, Trinity Street, St John's Street and Bridge Street. The majority of the colleges lie on either side of this street, and chiefly between it and the river. Those of St John's, Trinity, Trinity Hall, Clare, King's and Queens' present the famous “ backs ” towards the river, which is crossed by a series of picturesque bridges leading to the gardens and grounds on the opposite bank.

Christ’s College is not among the group indicated above; it stands farther to the east, in St Andrew's Street. It was founded in 1505 by the Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII. It incorporated God's House, which had been founded by William Bingham, a cleric of London, in 1439, had been removed when the site was required for part of King's College, and had been re founded with the countenance of Henry VI. in 1448. This was a small house, but the Lady Margaret's endowment provided for a master, twelve fellows and forty-seven scholars. Edward VI. added another fellowship and three scholarships and the present number of fellows is fifteen. There are certain exhibitions in election to which preference is given to schools in the north of England—Giggleswick, Kirkby Lonsdale, Skipton and Sedbergh. The buildings of Lady Margaret's foundation were in great part faced in classical style in the 17th century; a building east of the old quadrangle is also of this period, and is ascribed to Inigo Iones. The rooms occupied by the foundress herself are preserved, though in an altered condition, as are those of the poet Milton, who was educated here, and with whom the college has many associations. In the fine gardens is an ancient mulberry tree believed to have been planted by him. Among illustrious names connected with this college are John Leland the antiquary, Archdeacon Paley, author of the Evidences, and Charles Darwin, while Henry More and others of the school of Cambridge Platonists in the 17th century were educated here. Clare College lies close to the river, south of Trinity Hall. In 1326 the university erected a hall, known as University Hall, to accommodate a number of students, and in 1338 Elizabeth de