east on reaching the eighth degree of N. lat. Here they give rise to a number of small rivers, which collect in the rift and form the Benue, the great eastern affluent of the Niger. This part of the protectorate is known as Adamawa (q.v.). Farther north, beyond the Mandara mountains, the country, here part of the ancient sultanate of Bornu, slopes to the shores of Lake Chad, and has a general level of 800 to 1000 ft. The greater part of Cameroon is thus a mountainous country, with, on the coast, a strip of low land. In the south this is very narrow; it widens towards the north save where the Cameroon peak reaches to the sea.
At the foot of the Cameroon peak a number of estuaries cut deep bays which form excellent harbours. The small rivers which empty into them can be ascended for some miles by steam launches. The principal estuary, which is over 20 m. wide, is called, as already noted, the Cameroon river or bay. The term river is more particularly confined to a ramification of the estuary which receives the waters of the Mungo river (a considerable stream which flows south from the Cameroon mountains), the Wuri, a river coming from the north-east, and various smaller rivers. Under the shadow of Cameroon peak lies the bay of Ambas, with the islands of Ndami (Ambas) and Mondola. It forms a tolerable harbour, capable of receiving large vessels.
Traversing the central portion of the country is a large river known in its upper course as the Lom, and in its lower as the Sanaga, which enters the ocean just to the south of the Cameroon estuary. Both the Lom and the Nyong (a more southerly stream) rise in the central plateau, from which they descend in splendid cascades, breaking through the parallel coast range in rapids, which indicate the extent of their navigability. The Lokunja and Kribi are smaller rivers with courses parallel to and south of the Nyong. In the south-east of the colony the streams—of which the chief are the Dscha and Bumba—are tributaries of the Sanga, itself an affluent of the Congo (q.v.). About 100 m. of the right bank of the Sanga, from the confluence of the Dscha upwards, are in German territory. In the north the country drains into Lake Chad through the Logone and Shari (q.v.). Including the headwaters of the Benue the colony has four distinct river-systems, one connecting with the Niger, another with the Congo, and a third with Lake Chad, the fourth being the rivers which run direct to the sea. The Niger and Shari systems communicate, with, at high water, but one obstruction to navigation. The connecting link is a marshy lake named Tuburi. From it issues the Kebbi (Mao Kebi) a tributary of the Benue, and through it flows a tributary of the Logone, the chief affluent of the Shari. The one obstruction in the waterway is a fall of 165 ft. in the Kebbi.
Geology.—The oldest rocks, forming the greater mass of the hinterland, are gneisses, schists and granites of Archaean age. Along the Benue river a sandstone (Benue sandstone) forms the banks to 14° E. Cretaceous rocks occur around the basalt platform of the Cameroon mountain and generally along the coastal belt. Basalt and tuff, probably of Tertiary age, form the great mass of the Cameroon mountain, also the island of Fernando Po. Extensive areas in the interior, more especially towards Lake Chad, are covered with black earth of alluvial or lacustrine origin.
Climate.—The country lies wholly within the tropics and has a characteristic tropical climate. In the interior four seasons can be distinguished; a comparatively dry and a wet one alternating. July to October are the coldest months, and also bring most rain, but there is hardly a month without rain. On the coast the temperature is high all the year round, but on the plateau it is cooler. Malarial fever is frequent, and even the Africans, especially those coming from other countries, suffer from it. The middle zone of the Cameroon mountain has, however, a temperate climate and affords excellent sites for sanatoria.
Flora and Fauna.—The southern part of the low coast is chiefly grass land, while the river mouths and arms of the bays are lined with mangroves. The mountainous region is covered with primeval forest, in which timber and valuable woods for cabinet-making are plentiful. Most important are the Elaeis guineensis, Sterculia acuminata and the wild coffee tree. On Cameroon peak the forest ascends to 8000 ft.; above it is grass land. Towards the east the forest gradually grows thinner, assumes a park-like appearance, and finally disappears, wide grass uplands taking its place. The country north of the Benue is rich and well cultivated. Cotton and rubber are found in considerable quantities, and fields of maize, corn, rice and sugarcane bear witness to the fertility of the soil.
Animals are plentiful, including the great pachyderms and carnivora. The latter prey on the various kinds of antelopes which swarm on the grass lands. Two kinds of buffaloes are found in the forests, which are the home of the gorilla and chimpanzee. Large rodents, like the porcupine and cane rat, are numerous. Of birds there are 316 species, and several of venomous snakes.
Inhabitants.—The north of Cameroon is inhabited by Fula (q.v.) and Hausa (q.v.) and allied tribes, the south by Bantu-speaking races. The Fula came from the north and north-east, gradually driving the Bantu-negroes before them. They brought horses and horned cattle, unknown in these regions until then, and they founded well-organized states, like that of Adamawa, now divided between Cameroon and the British protectorate of Nigeria. In the vicinity of the rivers Benue, Faro and Kebbi, the people, who are good agriculturists, raise cereals and other crops, while on the plateaus stock-raising forms the chief pursuit of the inhabitants. In this northern region villages are built in the Sudanese zeriba style, surrounded with thorn fences; more important places are enclosed by a well-built wall and strongly fortified. Of martial disposition, the people often waged war with their neighbours, and also amongst themselves until the pacification of the hinterland by Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
The Bantu-negroes inhabit the country south of about 7° N. Chief among the tribes are the Dualla (q.v.), the Ba-kwiri (q.v.), the Ba-Long, the Ba-Farami, the Wuri, the Abo and the Ba-Kundu. They build square houses, are active traders and are ruled by independent chiefs, having no political cohesion. Among the Dualla a curious system of drum signals is noteworthy. In the coast towns are numbers of Krumen, who, however, rarely settle permanently in the country. The Fula, as also most of the Hausa, are Moslems, the other tribes are pagans. Missionary societies, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, are represented in the colony, and their schools are well attended, as are the schools belonging to the government. In all the schools German is taught, but pidgin-English is largely spoken at the coast towns.
Chief Towns.—Duala, the chief town in the protectorate, is situated on the Cameroon estuary at the mouth of the Wuri river in 4° 2′ N. 9° 42′ E. It consists of various trading stations and native towns close to one another on the south bank of the river and known, before the German occupation, as Cameroon, Bell town, Akwa town, &c. Hickory, on the north side of the stream and the starting point of the railway to the interior, is also part of Duala, which has a total population of 22,000, including about 170 Europeans. Duala is the headquarters of the merchants and missionaries. The principal streets are wide and tree lined, the sanitation is good. The government offices are placed in a fine park in which are statues of Gustav Nachtigal and others. The port is provided with a floating dock. The seat of government is Buea, a post 3000 ft. above the sea on the slopes of the Cameroon mountain. Victoria is a flourishing town in Ambas Bay, founded by the British Baptist missionaries expelled from Fernando Po in 1858 (see below). Batanga and Campo are trading stations in the southern portion of the colony. On the route from Duala to Lake Chad is the large commercial town of Ngaundere, inhabited chiefly by Hausas and occupied by the Germans in 1901. Another large town is Garua on the Benue river. Farther north and within 30 m. of Lake Chad is Dikwa (Dikoa), in Bornu, the town chosen by Rabah (q.v.) as his capital after his conquest of Bornu. Gulfei on the lower Shari and Kusseri on the Logone are also towns of some note. Ngoko is a trading station on the Dscha, in the south-east of the protectorate, near the confluence of that river with the Sanga.