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113
CAMILING—CAMISARDS

the measures rendered necessary by the ravages of Rabah and his sons, withdrew their troops into French territory. The shores of Lake Chad were first reached by a German military force on the 2nd of May 1902. In 1904 and again in 1905 there were native risings in various parts of the protectorate. These disturbances were followed, early in 1906, by the recall of the governor, Herr von Puttkamer, who was called upon to answer charges of maladministration. He was succeeded in 1907 by Dr T. Seitz. Collisions on the southern border of the protectorate between French and German troops led in 19051906 to an accurate survey of the south and east frontier regions and to a new convention (1908) whereby for the straight lines marking the frontier in former agreements natural features were largely substituted. Germany gained a better outlet to the Sanga river.

The ascent of the Cameroon mountain was first attempted by Joseph Merrick of the Baptist Missionary Society in 1847; but it was not till 1861 that the summit was gained, when the ascent was made by Sir Richard Burton, Gustav Mann, a noted botanist, and Señor Calvo. The starting point was Babundi, a place on the seashore west of the mountain. From the south-east the summit was reached by Mary Kingsley in 1895.

See Mary H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa (London, 1897); Sir R. Burton, Abeokuta and the Cameroons Mountains (2 vol., London, 1863); E. B. Underhill, Alfred Saker . . . A Biography (London, 1884); Sir H. H. Johnson, George Grenfell and the Congo . . . and Notes on the Cameroons . . . (London, 1908); Max Buchner, Kamerun Skizzen und Betrachtungen (Leipzig, 1887); S. Passarge, Adamaua (Berlin, 1895); E. Zintgraph, Nord-Kamerun (Berlin, 1895); F. Hutter, Wanderungen und Forschungen im Nord-Hinterland von Kamerun (Brunswick, 1902); F. Bauer, Die deutsche Niger-Benue-Tsadsee-Expedition, 19021903 (Berlin, 1904); C. René, Kamerun und die deutsche Tsâdsee Eisenbahn (Berlin, 1905); O. Zimmermann, Durch Busch und Steppe vom Campo bis zum Schari, 18921902 (Berlin, 1909); also British Foreign Office Reports. For special study of particular sciences see F. Wohltmann, Der Plantagenbau in Kamerun und seine Zukunft (Berlin, 1896); F. Plehn, Die Kamerunküste, Studien zur Klimatologie, Physiologie und Pathologie in den Tropen (Berlin, 1898); E. Esch, F. Solger, M. Oppenheim and O. Jaekel, Beiträge zur Geologie von Kamerun (Stuttgart, 1904). For geology the following works may also be consulted: Stromer von Reichenbach, Geologie der deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika (Berlin, 1896); A. von Koenen, “Über fossilien der unteren Kreide am Ufer des Mungo in Kamerun,” Abh. k. Wiss., Göttingen, 1897; E. Cohen, “Lava vom Camerun-Gebirge,” Neues Jahrb. f. Min., 1887.

 (F. R. C.) 


CAMILING, a town of the province of Tarlac, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on the Camiling river, about 80 m. N.N.W. of Manila. Pop. (1903) 25,243. In 1905 after the census had been taken, the adjacent towns of Santa Ignacia (pop. 1911) and San Clemente (pop. 1822) were annexed to Camiling. Its products are rice, Indian corn and sugar. Fine timber grows in the vicinity. The principal language is Ilocano; Pangasinan, too, is spoken. Being in an isolated position, very difficult of access during the rainy season, Camiling has always been infested with thieves and bands of outlaws, who come here for concealment.

CAMILLUS, MARCUS FURIUS, Roman soldier and statesman, of patrician descent, censor in 403 B.C. He triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome. When accused of having unfairly distributed the spoil taken at Veii, which was captured by him after a ten years’ siege, he went into voluntary exile at Ardea. The real cause of complaint against him was no doubt his patrician haughtiness and his triumphal entry into Rome in a chariot drawn by white horses. Subsequently the Romans, when besieged in the Capitol by the Gauls, created him dictator; he completely defeated the enemy (but see Brennus and Rome: History, ii., “The Republic”) and drove them from Roman territory. He dissuaded the Romans, disheartened by the devastation wrought by the Gauls, from migrating to Veii, and induced them to rebuild the city. He afterwards fought successfully against the Aequi, Volsci and Etruscans, and repelled a fresh invasion of the Gauls in 367. Though patrician in sympathy, he saw the necessity of making concessions to the plebeians and was instrumental in passing the Licinian laws. He died of the plague in the eighty-first year of his age (365). The story of Camillus is no doubt largely traditional. To this element probably belongs the story of the schoolmaster who, when Camillus was attacking Falerii (q.v.), attempted to betray the town by bringing into his camp the sons of some of the principal inhabitants of the place. Camillus, it is said, had him whipped back into the town by his pupils, and the Faliscans were so affected by this generosity that they at once surrendered.

See Livy v. Io, vi. 4; Plutarch, Camillus. For the Gallic retreat, see Polybius ii. 18; T. Mommsen, Römische Forschungen, ii. pp. 113-152 (1879).

CAMILLUS and CAMILLA, in Roman antiquity, originally terms used for freeborn children. Later, they were used to denote the attendants on certain priests and priestesses, especially the flamen dialis and flaminica and the curiones. It was necessary that they should be freeborn and the children of parents still alive (Dion. Halic. ii. 21). The name Camillus has been connected with the Cadmilus or Casmilus of the Samothracian mysteries, identified with Hermes (see Cabeiri).

CAMISARDS (from camisade, obsolete Fr. for “a night attack,” from the Ital. camiciata, formed from camicia—Fr. chemise—a shirt, from the fact of a shirt being worn over the armour in order to distinguish friends from foes), the name given to the peasantry of the Cévennes who, from 1702 to 1705 and for some years afterwards, carried on an organized military resistance to the dragonnades, or conversion by torture, death and confiscation of property, by which, in the Huguenot districts of France, the revocation of the edict of Nantes was attempted to be enforced. The Camisards were also called Barbets (“water-dogs,” a term also applied to the Waldenses), Vagabonds, Assemblers (assemble was the name given to the meeting or conventicle of Huguenots), Fanatics and the Children of God. They belonged to that romance-speaking people of Gothic descent whose mystic imagination and independent character made the south of France the most fertile nursing-ground of medieval heresy (see Cathars and Albigenses. At the time of the Reformation the same causes produced like results. Calvin was warmly welcomed when he preached at Nimes; Montpellier became the chief centre for the instruction of the Huguenot youth. It was, however, in the great triangular plateau of mountain called the Cévennes that, among the small farmers, the cloth and silk weavers and vine dressers, Protestantism was most intense and universal. These people were (and still are) very poor, but intelligent and pious, and of a character at once grave and fervent. From the lists of Huguenots sent from Languedoc to the galleys (1684 to 1762), we gather that the, common type of physique is “belle taille, cheveux bruns, visage ovale.” The chief theatre of the revolt comprised that region of the Cévennes bounded by the towns of Florac, Pont-de-Montvert, Alais and Lasalle, thus embracing the southern portion of the department of Lozère (the Bas-Gévaudan) and the neighbouring district in the east of the department of Gard.

In order to understand the War of the Cévennes it is necessary to recall the persecutions which preceded and followed the revocation of the edict of Nantes. It is also necessary to remember the extraordinary religious movement which had for a great number of years agitated the Protestants of France. Faced by the violation of that most solemn of treaties, a treaty which had been declared perpetual and irrevocable by Henry IV., Louis XIII. and even Louis XIV. himself, they could not, in the enthusiasm of their faith, believe that such a crime would be left unpunished. But being convinced that no human power could give them liberty of conscience, they went to the Bible to find 'when their deliverance would come. As far back as 1686 Pierre Jurieu published his work L’Accomplissement des prophéties, in which, speaking of the Apocalypse, he predicted the end of the persecution and the fall of Babylon—that is to say of Roman Catholicism—for 1689. The Revolution in England seemed to provide a striking corroboration of his prophecies, and the apocalyptic enthusiasm took so strong a hold on people’s minds that Bossuet felt compelled to refute Jurieu’s arguments in his Apocalypse expliquée, published in 1689. The Lettres pastorales of Jurieu (Rotterdam, 1686–1687), a series of brief tracts which were secretly circulated in France,