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decorated with vertical flat pilaster strips, four on each face, and horizontal arcaded corbel strings. Of earlier date (879), the campanile of S. Satiro at Milan is in perfect preservation; it is divided into four storeys by arched corbel tables, the upper storey having a similar arcade with mid-wall shaft to those in Rome. One of the most notable examples in north Italy is the campanile of Pomposa near Ferrara. It is of immense height and has nine storeys crowned with a lofty conical spire, the wall face being divided vertically with pilaster strips and horizontally

EB1911 - Fig 1. Campanile of S. Giorgo in Velabro, Rome.jpg
From a photograph by Alinari.
Fig. 1.—Campanile of S. Giorgo in Velabro, Rome.

with arcaded corbel tables,—this campanile, the two towers of S. Antonio, Padua, and that of S. Gottardo, Milan, of octagonal plan, being among the few which are thus terminated. In the campanile at Torcello we find an entirely different treatment: doubly recessed pilaster-strips divide each face into two lofty blind arcades rising from the ground to the belfry storey, over 100 ft. high, with small slits for windows, the upper or belfry storey having an arcade of four arches on each front. This is the type generally adopted in the campanili of Venice, where there are no string-courses. The campanile of St Mark’s was of similar design, with four lofty blind arcades on each face. The lower portion, built in brick, 162 ft. high, was commenced in 902 but not completed till the middle of the 12th century. In 1510 a belfry storey was added with an open arcade of four arches on each face, and slightly set back from the face of the tower above was a mass of masonry with pyramidal roof, the total height being 320 ft. On the 14th of July 1902 the whole structure collapsed; its age, the great weight of the additions made in 1510, and probably the cutting away inside of the lower part, would seem to have been the principal contributors to this disaster, as the pile foundations were found to be in excellent condition.

In central Italy the two early campanili at Lucca return to the Lombard type of the north, with pilaster strips and arcaded corbel strings, and the same is found in S. Francesco (Assisi), S. Frediano (Lucca), S. Pietro-in-Grado and S. Michele-in-Orticaia (Pisa), and S. Maria-Novella (Florence). The campanile of S. Niccola, Pisa, is octagonal on plan, with a lofty blind arcade on each face like those in Venice, but with a single string-course halfway up. The gallery above is an open eaves gallery like those in north Italy.

In southern Italy the design of the campanile varies again. In the two more important examples at Bari and Molfetta, there are two towers in each case attached to the east end of the cathedrals. The campanili are in plain masonry, the storeys being suggested only by blind arches or windows, there being neither pilaster strips nor string-courses. The same treatment is found at Barletta and Caserta Vecchia; in the latter the upper storey has been made octagonal with circular turrets at each angle, and this type of design is followed at Amalfi, the centre portion being circular instead of octagonal and raised much higher. In Palermo the campanile of the Martorana,

EB1911 - Fig 2. Campanile of St. Mark's, Venice.jpg
From a photograph by Alinari.
Fig. 2.—Campanile of St Mark’s, Venice.

of which the two lower storeys, decorated with three concentric blind pointed arches on each face, probably date from the Saracenic occupation, has angle turrets on the two upper storeys. The upper portions of the campanile of the cathedral have similar angle turrets, which, crowned with conical roofs, group well with the central octagonal spires of the towers. The two towers of the west front of the cathedral at Cefalu resemble those of Bari and Molfetta as regards their treatment.

The campanili of S. Zenone, Verona, and the cathedrals of Siena and Prato, differ from those already mentioned in that they owe their decoration to the alternating courses of black and white marble. Of this type by far the most remarkable so