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qualities which inspire enthusiasm and are requisite in a great leader, he was at least a model of industry. Among other prominent politicians were Sir James Rose-Innes, Mr J. X. Merriman and Mr W. P. Schreiner. The two last named both held the premiership; their attitude and views have been indicated in the historical sketch. Sir James Rose-Innes, a lawyer whose intellectual gifts and patriotism have never been impugned, was not a “party man,” and this made him, on more than one occasion, a somewhat difficult political ally. On the native question he held a consistently strong attitude, defending their rights, and uncompromisingly opposing the native liquor traffic. In 1901 he went to the Transvaal as chief justice of that colony. Sir Thomas Fuller, a Cape Town representative, though he remained outside office, gave staunch support to every enlightened liberal and progressive measure which was brought forward. A man of exceptional culture and eloquence, he made his influence felt, not only in politics, but in journalism and the best social life of the Cape peninsula. From 1902 to 1908 he held the office of agent-general of the colony in London.

In literature, the colony has produced at least two authors whose works have taken their place among those of the best English writers of their day. The History of South Africa, by Mr G. McCall Theal, will remain a classic worli of reference. The careful industry and the lucidity which characterize Mr Theal's work stamp him as a historian of whom South Africa may well be proud. In fiction, Olive Schreiner (Mrs Cronwright-Schreiner) produced, while still in her teens, the Story of an African Farm, a work which gave great promise of original literary genius. Unfortunately, she, in common with the rest of South Africa, was subsequently swept into the seething vortex of contemporary politics and controversy. In music and painting there have been artists of talent in the Cape Colony, but the country is still too young, and the conditions of life too disturbed, to allow such a development as has already occurred in Australia.

Governors at the Cape since Introduction of Responsible Government

1870. Sir Henry Barkly.

1877. Sir Bartle Frere.

1880. Sir Hercules Robinson.

1889. Sir Henry Loch.

1895. Sir Hercules Robinson (Lord Rosmead).

1897. Sir Alfred Milner.

1901. Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson.

Prime Ministers.
1872. Mr J. C. Molteno.

1878. Mr J. Gordon Sprigg.

1881. Mr T. C. Scanlen.

1884. Mr Upington.

1886. Sir J. Gordon Sprigg

1890. Mr C. J. Rhodes.

1896. Sir J. Gordon Sprigg.

1898. Mr W. P. Schreiner.

1900. Sir J. Gordon Sprigg.

1904. Dr L. S. Jameson.

1908. Mr J. X. Merriman.

Bibliography—The majority of the books concerning Cape Colony deal also with South Africa as a whole (see South Africa: Bibliography). The following list gives books specially relating to the Cape. For ethnography see the works mentioned under Bushmen, Hottentots, Kaffirs and Bechuana.

(a) Descriptive accounts, geography, commerce and economics:—The best early accounts of the colony are found in de la Caille's Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap de Bonne Espérance (Paris, 1763), the Nouvelle Description du Cap de Bonne Espérance (Amsterdam, 1778); F. le Vaillant's Voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique (Paris, 1790), and Second Voyage (Paris, an III. [1794–1795]); C. P. Thunberg's “Account of the Cape of Good Hope” in vol. xvi. of Pinkerton's Travels (London, 1814); A. Sparman's Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope … 1772–1776 (translated into English from the Swedish, London, 1785)—an excellent work; and W. Paterson's A Narrative of Four Journeys … 1777–1779 (London, 1789). P. Kolbe or Kolben's Present State of the Cape of Good Hope (English translation from the German, London, 1731) is less trustworthy. Sir J. Barrow's Account of Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa in 1797–1798 (2 vols., London, 1801–1804); H. Lichtenstein's Travels in Southern Africa in 1803–1806 (translated from the German, 2 vols., London, 1812–1815), and W. J. Burchell's Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa (2 vols., London, 1822–1824) are standard works. Burchell's book contains the best map of the Cape published up to that time. W. P. Greswell's Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi (Oxford, 1892) deals specially with Cape Colony; the Illustrated Official Handbook of the Cape and South Africa (Cape Town, 1893) includes chapters on the zoology, flora, productions and resources of the colony. A. R. E. Burton, Cape Colony To-day (Cape Town, 1907), a useful guide to the country and its resources. A Statistical Register is issued yearly by the Cape government. The Census of the Colony, 1904: General Report (Cape Town, 1905) and previous census reports contain much valuable matter.

(b) Special subjects:—For detailed information on special subjects consult The Natives of South Africa (London, 1901); R. Wallace, Farming Industries of Cape Colony (London, 1896); A. R. E. Burton, Cape Colony for the Settler (London, 1903); The Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope; Gardner F. Williams, The Diamond Mines of South Africa, revised ed. (New York, 1905), an authoritative work by a former manager of the De Beers mine; A. W. Rogers, An Introduction to the Geology of Cape Colony (London, 1905) and “The Campbell Rand and Griquatown Series in Hay," Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Africa, vol. ix. (1906); Reports, Geological Commission of the Cape of Good Hope (1896 et seq.); Science in South Africa (Cape Town, 1905); H. A. Bryden, Kloof and Karoo; sport, legend and natural history in Cape Colony (London, 1889); South African Education Yearbook (Cape Colony edition, Cape Town, 1906 et seq.). For books dealing with Roman-Dutch law, see South Africa.

(c) History:—H. C. V. Leibbrandt, Précis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope (15 vols., vols. v.–vii. contain van Riebeek's Journal, Cape Town, 1896–1902); The Rebellion of 1815, generally known as Slachter's Nek (Cape Town, 1902); G. M. Theal, Chronicles of Cape Commanders … 1651–1691 … (Cape Town, 1882), and Records of the Cape Colony from February 1793 to April 1831, from MS. in the Record Office, London (36 vols., Cape Town, 1897–1905); History of South Africa under the Administration of the Dutch East India Company, 1652 to 1795 (2 vols., London, 1897); History of South Africa from 1795 to 1834 (London, 1891); E. B. Watermeyer, Three Lectures on the Cape … under the … Dutch East India Company (Cape Town, 1857); A. Wilmot and J. C. Chase, History of the … Cape … from its Discovery to … 1868 (Cape Town, 1869); Lady Anne Barnard, South Africa a Hundred Years Ago: Letters written from the Cape, 1797–1801 (London, 1901), a vivid picture of social life, &c.; Mrs A. F. Trotter, Old Cape Colony … Her Men and Houses from 1652 to 1806 (London, 1903); C. T. Campbell, British South Africa, 1795–1825 (London, 1897), the story of the British settlers of 1820. Consult also J. Martineau's Life of Sir Bartle Frere; the Autobiography of Sir Harry Smith; P. A. Molteno's Life and Times of Sir John Charles Molteno (first premier of Cape Colony) (2 vols., London, 1900); A. Wilmot's Life of Sir Richard Southey (London, 1904), and G. C. Henderson's Sir George Grey (London, 1907). B. Worsfold's Lord Milner's Work in South Africa, 1897–1902 (London, 1906), is largely concerned with Cape politics. For Blue-books, &c., relating to the colony published by the British parliament, see the Colonial Office List (London, yearly).

 (F. R. C.) 

Capefigue, Jean-Baptiste Honoré Raymond (1801–1872), French historian and biographer, was born at Marseilles in 1801. At the age of twenty he went to Paris to study law; but he soon deserted law for journalism. He became editor of the Quotidienne, and was afterwards connected, either as editor or leading contributor, with the Temps, the Messager des Chambres, the Révolution de 1848 and other papers. During the ascendancy of the Bourbons he held a post in the foreign office, to which is due the royalism of some of his newspaper articles. Indeed all Capefigue's works receive their colour from his legitimist politics; he preaches divine right and non-resistance, and finds polite words even for the profligacy of Louis XV. and the worthlessness of his mistresses. He wrote biographies of Catherine and Marie de' Medici, Anne and Maria Theresa of Austria, Catherine II. of Russia, Elizabeth of England, Diana of Poitiers and Agnes Sorel—for he delighted in passing from “queens of the right hand” to “queens of the left.” His historical works, besides histories of the Jews from the fall of the Maccabees to the author's time, of the first four centuries of the Christian church, and of European diplomatists, extend over the whole range of French history. He died at Paris in December 1872.

The general catalogue of printed books for the Bibliothéque Nationale contains no fewer than seventy-seven works (145 volumes) published by Capefigue during forty years. Of these only the Histoire de Philippe-Auguste (4 vols., 1829) and the Histoire de la réforme, de la ligue et du règne de Henri IV (8 vols., 1834–1835) perhaps deserve still to be remembered. For Capefigue's style bears evident marks of haste, and although he had access to an exceptionally large number of sources of information, including the state papers, neither his accuracy nor his judgment was to be trusted.

Capel (or Hadham), Arthur Capel, Baron (fl. 1640–1649), English royalist, son of Sir Henry Capel of Rayne Hall,