important tomb is the so-called Grotta delle Vipere, the rock-hewn tomb of Cassius Philippus and Atilia Pomptilla, the sides of which are covered with inscriptions (Corpus Inscr. Lat. x., Berlin, 1883, Nos. 7563-7578). Other tombs are also to be found on the high ground near the Punic tombs already mentioned. The latter are hewn perpendicularly in the rock, while the Roman tombs are chambers excavated horizontally. In the lagoon itself were found a large number of terra cottas, made of local clay, some being masks of both divinities and men (among them grotesques) others representing hands and feet, others various animals, and of amphorae of various sizes and other vases. Some of the amphorae contained animals’ bones, possibly the remains of sacrifices. These objects are of the Punic period; they were all found in groups, and had apparently been arranged on a platform of piles in what was then a bay, in readiness for shipment (F. Vivanet in Notizie degli Scavi, 1893, 255). It is probable that the acropolis of Carales was occupied even in prehistoric times; but more abundant traces of prehistoric settlements (pottery and fragments of obsidian, also kitchen middens, containing bones of animals and shells of molluscs used for human food) have been found on the Capo S. Elia to the south-east of the modern town (see A. Taramelli in Notizie degli Scavi, 1904, 19 seq.). An inscription records the existence of a temple of Venus Erycina on this promontory in Roman times. The museum contains an interesting collection of objects from many of the sites mentioned, and also from other parts of the island; it is in fact the most important in Sardinia, and is especially strong in prehistoric bronzes (see Sardinia).
For the Roman inscriptions see C.I.L. cit., Nos. 7552-7807. (T. As.)
CARAN D’ACHE, the pseudonym (meaning “lead-pencil”) of Emmanuel Poiré (1858–1909), French artist and illustrator, who was born and educated at Moscow, being the grandson of one of Napoleon’s officers who had settled in Russia. He determined to be a military painter, and when he arrived in Paris from Russia he found an artistic adviser in Detaille. He served five years in the army, where the principal work allotted to him was the drawing of uniforms for the ministry of war. He embellished a short-lived journal, La Vie militaire, with a series of illustrations, among them being some good-tempered caricatures of the German army, which showed how accurately he was acquainted with military detail. His special gift lay in pictorial anecdote, the story being represented at its different stages with irresistible effect, in the artist’s own mannered simplicity. Much of his work was contributed to La Vie parisienne, Le Figaro illustré, La Caricature, Le Chat noir, and he also issued various albums of sketches, the Carnet de chèques, illustrating the Panama scandals, Album de croquis militaires et d’histoire sans légendes, Histoire de Marlborough, &c., besides illustrating a good many books, notably the Prince Kozakokoff of Bemadaky. He died on the 26th of February 1909.
A collection of his work was exhibited at the Fine Art Society’s rooms in London in 1898. The catalogue contained a prefatory note by M. H. Spielmann.
CARAPACE (a Fr. word, from the Span, carapacho, a shield or armour), the upper shell of a crustacean, tortoise or turtle. The covering of the armadillo is called a carapace, as is also the hard case in which certain of the Infusoria are enclosed.
CARAPEGUA, an interior town of Paraguay, 37 m. S.E. of Asunción on the old route between that city and the missions. Pop. (est.) 13,000 (probably the population of the large rural district about the town is included in this estimate). The town (founded in 1725) is situated in a fertile country producing cotton, tobacco, Indian corn, sugar-cane and mandioca. It has two schools, a church and modern public buildings.
CARAT (Arab. Qīrāt, weight of four grains; Gr. κεράτιον, little horn, the fruit of the carob or locust tree), a small weight (originally in the form of a seed) used for diamonds and precious stones, and a measure for determining the fineness of gold. The exact weight of the carat, in practice, now varies slightly in different places. In 1877 a syndicate of London, Paris and Amsterdam jewellers fixed the weight at 205 milligrammes (3.163 troy grains). The South African carat, according to Gardner Williams (general manager of the De Beers mines), is equal to 3.174 grains (The Diamond Mines of South Africa, 1902). The fineness of gold is measured by a ratio with 24 carats as a standard; thus 2 parts of alloy make it 22-carat gold, and so on.
CARAUSIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, tyrant or usurper in Britain, A.D. 286–293, was a Menapian from Belgic Gaul, a man of humble origin, who in his early days had been a pilot. Having entered the Roman army, he rapidly obtained promotion, and was stationed by the emperor Maximian at Gessoriacum (Bononia, Boulogne) to protect the coasts and channel from Frankish and Saxon pirates. He at first acted energetically, but was subsequently accused of having entered into partnership with the barbarians and was sentenced to death by the emperor. Carausius thereupon crossed over to Britain and proclaimed himself an independent ruler. The legions at once joined him; numbers of Franks enlisted in his service; an increased and well-equipped fleet secured him the command of the neighbouring seas. In 289 Maximian attempted to recover the island, but his fleet was damaged by a storm and he was defeated. Maximian and Diocletian were compelled to acknowledge the rule of Carausius in Britain; numerous coins are extant with the heads of Carausius, Diocletian and Maximian, bearing the legend “Carausius et fratres sui.” In 292 Constantius Chlorus besieged and captured Gessoriacum (hitherto in possession of Carausius), together with part of his fleet and naval stores. Constantius then made extensive preparations to ensure the reconquest of Britain, but before they were completed Carausius was murdered by Allectus, his praefect of the guards (Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 39; Eutropius ix. 21, 22; Eumenius, Panegyrici ii. 12, v. 12). A Roman mile-stone found near Carlisle (1895) bears the inscription IMP. C[aes] M. AUR[elius] MAUS. The meaning of MAUS is doubtful, but it may be an anticipation of ARAUS (see F. J. Haverfield in Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian Soc. Transactions, 1895, p. 437).
A copper coin found at Richborough, inscribed Domino Carausio Ces., must be ascribed to a Carausius of later date, since the type of the reverse is not found until the middle of the 4th century at the earliest. Nothing is known of this Carausius (A. J. Evans in Numismatic Chronicle, 1887, “On a coin of a second Carausius Caesar in Britain in the Fifth Century”).
See J. Watts de Peyster, The History of Carausius, the Dutch Augustus (1858); P. H. Webb, The Reign and Coinage of Carausius (1908).
CARAVACA, a town of south-eastern Spain, in the province of Murcia; near the left bank of the river Caravaca, a tributary of the Segura. Pop. (1900) 15,846. Caravaca is dominated by the medieval castle of Santa Cruz, and contains several convents and a fine parish church, with a miraculous cross celebrated for its healing power, in honour of which a yearly festival is held on the 3rd of May. The hills which extend to the north are rich in marble and iron. Despite the lack of railway communication, the town is a considerable industrial centre, with large iron-works, tanneries and manufactories of paper, chocolate and oil.
CARAVAGGIO, MICHELANGELO AMERIGHI (or Merigi) DA (1569–1609), Italian painter, was born in the village of Caravaggio, in Lombardy, from which he received his name. He was originally a mason’s labourer, but his powerful genius directed him to painting, at which he worked with immitigable energy and amazing force. He despised every sort of idealism whether noble or emasculate, became the head of the Naturalisti (unmodified imitators of ordinary nature) in painting, and adopted a style of potent contrasts of light and shadow, laid on with a sort of fury, indicative of that fierce temper which led the artist to commit a homicide in a gambling quarrel at Rome. To avoid the consequences of his crime he fled to Naples and to Malta, where he was imprisoned for another attempt to avenge a quarrel. Escaping to Sicily, he was attacked by a party sent in pursuit of him, and severely wounded. Being pardoned, he set out for Rome; but having been arrested by mistake before his arrival, and afterwards released, and left to shift for himself in excessive heat, and still suffering from wounds and hardships,