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CALL—CALLAO

his intimacy with the Reformed divines at the conference of Thorn (1645), and his desire to effect a reconciliation between them and the Lutherans, a new charge was preferred against him, principally at the instance of Abraham Calovius (1612–1686), of a secret attachment to Calvinism. In fact, the great aim of his life was to reconcile Christendom by removing all unimportant differences. The disputes to which this attitude gave rise, known in the Church as the Syncretistic controversy, lasted during the whole lifetime of Calixtus, and distracted the Lutheran church, till a new controversy arose with P. J. Spener and the Pietists of Halle. Calixtus died in 1656.

There is a monograph on Calixtus by E. L. T. Henke (2 vols., 1853-1856); see also Isaak Dorner, Geschl d. protest. Theol. pp. 606-624; and especially Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie.


CALL (from Anglo-Saxon ceallian, a common Teutonic word, cf. Dutch kallen, to talk or chatter), to speak in a loud voice, and particularly to attract some one's attention by a loud utterance. Hence its use for a visit at a house, where the name of the occupier, to whom the visit was made, was called aloud, in early times, to indicate the presence of the visitor. It is thus transferred to a short stay at a place, but usually with the idea of a specific purpose, as in “ port of call, ” where ships stop in passing. Connected with the idea of summoning by name are such uses as “roll-call ” or “ call-over, ” where names are called over and answered by those present; similar uses are the “ call to the bar, ” the summoning at an Inn of Court of those students qualified to practise as barristers, and the “ call within the bar ” to the appointment of king's counsel. In the first case the “ bar is that which separates the benchers from the rest of the body of members of the Inn, in the other the place in a court of law within which only king's counsel, and formerly sergeants-at-law, are allowed to plead. “ Call ” is also used with a particular reference to a divine summons, as of the calling of the apostles. It is thus used in nonconformist churches of the invitation to serve as minister a particular congregation or chapel. It is from this sense of a vocatio or summons that the word “ calling ” is used, not only of the divine vocation, but of a man's ordinary profession, occupation or business. In card games “ call ” is used, in poker, of the demand that the hand of the highest bettor be exposed or seen, exercised by that player who equals his bet; in whist or bridge, of a certain method of play, the “ call ” for a suit or for trumps on the part of one partner, to which the other is expected to respond; and in many card games for the naming of a card, irregularly exposed, which is laid face up on the table, and may be thus “ called ” for, at any point the opponent may choose.

“ Call ” is also a term on the English and American stock exchanges for a contract by which, in consideration of a certain sum, an"' option ” is given by the person making or signing the agreement to another named therein or his order or to bearer, to “ call ” for a specined amount of stock at a certain day for a certain price. A “ put, ” which is the reverse of a “ call, ” is the option of selling (putting) stock at a certain day for a certain price. A combined option of either calling or putting is termed a “ straddle, ” and sometimes on the American stock exchange a “ spread-eagle.” (See further Stock Exchange.) The word is also used, in connexion with joint-stock companies, to signify a demand for instalments due on shares, when the capital of the company has not been demanded or “ called ” up at once. (See Company.)


CALLANDER, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, 16 m. north-west of Stirling by the Caledonian railway. Pop. (1901) 1458. Situated on the north bank of the Teith, here crossed by a three-arched bridge, and sheltered by a ridge of wooded hills, it is in growing repute as a health resort. A mile and a half north-east are the Falls of Bracklinn (Gaelic, “white-foaming pool”), formed by the Keltie, which takes a leap of 50 ft. down the red sandstone gorge on its way to the Teith. Two miles north-west of Callander is the Pass of Leny, “ the gate of the Highlands, ” and farther in the same direction is Loch Lubnaig, on the shores of which stand the ruins of St Bride's chapel. Callander owes much of its prosperity to the fact that it is the centre from which the Trossachs is usually visited, the route being that described in Scott's Lady of the Lake. The ascent of Ben Ledi is commonly made from the town.


CALLAO, a city, port and coast department of Peru, 8½ m. west of Lima, in 12° 04, S., 77° 13' W. Pop. (1905) 31,128, of whom 3349 were foreigners. The department includes the city and its environs, Bellavista and La Punta, and the neighbouring islands, San Lorenzo, Fronton, the Palominos, &c., and covers an area of I4% sq. m. Callao is the principal port of the republic, its harbour being a large bay sheltered by a tongue of land on the south called La Punta, and by the islands of San Lorenzo and Fronton. The anchorage is good and safe, and the harbour is one of the best on the Pacific coast of South America. The city stands on the south side of the bay, and is built on a fiat point of land only 8 ft. above sea-level. The houses are for the most part low and cheaply built, and the streets are narrow, badly paved, irregular and dirty. The climate is good and the coast is swept by cool ocean breezes, the average temperatures ranging from 65° to 77° F., but notwithstanding this, Callao has a bad reputation for fevers and contagious diseases, chiefly because of its insanitary condition. Its noteworthy public buildings are the custom-house and its storehouses which occupy the old quadrangular fortress built by the Spanish government between 1770 and 1775, and cover 15 acres, the prefecture, the military and naval offices and barracks, the post-office, three Catholic churches, a hospital, market, three clubs and some modern commercial houses. The present city is half a mile north of the site of the old town, which was destroyed by an earthquake and tidal wave in 1746. For a short time the commercial interests of the stricken city centred at Bellavista, 1¼ m. east, where wheat granaries were built and still remain, but later the greater convenience of a waterside site drew the merchants and population back to the vicinity of the submerged town. The importance of Callao in colonial times, when it was the only open port south of Panama, did not continue under the new political order, because of the unsettled state of public affairs and the loss of its monopoly. This decline in its prosperity was checked, and the modern development of the port began, when a railway was built from Callao into the heart of the Andes, and Callao is now an important factor in the development of copper-mining. The port is connected with Lima by two railways and an electric tramway, with Oroya by railway 138 m. long, and with Cerro de Pasco by railway 221 m. A short railway also runs from the port to the Bellavista storehouses. The port is provided with modern harbour improvements, consisting of sea-walls of concrete blocks, two fine docks with berthing spaces for 30 large vessels, and a large floating-dock (300 ft. long on the blocks and capable of receiving vessels up to 21 ft. draught and 5000 tons weight), which was built in Glasgow and was sent out to Callao in 1863. The docks are provided with gas and electric lights, 18 steam cranes for loading and discharging vessels, a triple line of railway and a supply of fresh water. Callao was formerly the headquarters in South America of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co., Ltd. (incorporated 1840), but Valparaiso now occupies that position. There are, owing perhaps to the proximity of Lima, few industrial establishments in the city; among them are a large sugar refinery, some flour-mills, a brewery, a factory for making effervescent drinks, and a number of foundries and repair shops. Being a port of the first class, Callao is an important distributing centre for the coasting trade, in which a large number of small vessels are engaged. The foreign steamship companies making it a regular port of call are the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. (British), the Compania Sud-America (Chilean), the Kosmos and Roland lines (German), the Merchants line (New York), and a Japanese line from the ports of Japan and China. A subsidized Peruvian line is also contemplated to ply between the Pacific ports of South America with an eventual extension of the service to Europe. The arrivals from and clearances for foreign ports in 1907 were as follows:—
                          Steamers.       Sailing Vessels.
                          No.  Tonnage.   No.   Tonnage.
Arrivals        . . . 518   937,302   924   174,165
Clearances . . . 517   937,706,   931   163,365