Open main menu
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

His wife, whom he divorced, subsequently became the wife of Pericles; one of his daughters, Hipparete, married Alcibiades; another, the wife of Theodorus, was the mother of the orator Isocrates.

See Thucydides iii. 91; Diod. Sic. xii. 65; Andocides, Contra Alcibiadem, 13.

  3. Callias, son of the above, the black sheep of the family, was notorious for his profligacy and extravagance, and was ridiculed by the comic poets as an example of a degenerate Athenian (Aristophanes, Frogs, 429, Birds, 283, and schol. Andocides, De M ysleriis, 110–131). The scene of Xenophons Symposium and Plato's Protagoras was laid at his house. He was reduced to a state of absolute poverty and, according to Aelian (Var. Hist. iv. 23), committed suicide, but there is no confirmation of this, In spite of his dissipated life he played a certain part in public affairs. In 392 he was in command of the Athenian hoplites at Corinth, when the Spartans were defeated by Iphicrates. In 371 he was at the head of the embassy sent to make terms with Sparta. The peace which was the result was called after him the “ peace of Callias."

See Xenophon, Hellenica, iv. 5, vi. 3; and DELIAN LEAGUE.

CALLIMACHUS, an Athenian sculptor of the second half of the 5th century B.C. Ancient critics associate him with Calamis, whose relative he may have been. He is given credit for two inventions, the Corinthian column and the running borer for drilling marble. The most certain facts in regard to him are that he sculptured some dancing Laconian maidens, and made a golden lamp for the Erechtheum (about 408 B.C.); and that he used to spoil his works by over-refinement and excessive labour.

CALLIMACHUS, Greek poet and grammarian, a native of Cyrene and a descendant of the illustrious house of the Battiadae, flourished about 250 B.C. He opened a school in the suburbs of Alexandria, and some of the most distinguished grammarians and poets were his pupils. He was subsequently appointed by Ptolemy Philadelphus chief librarian of the Alexandrian library, which office he held till his death (about 240). His Pinakex (tablets), in 120 books, a critical and chronologically arranged catalogue of the library, laid the foundation of a history of Greek literature. According to Suidas, he wrote about 800 works, in verse and prose; of these only six hymns, sixty-four epigrams and some fragments are extant; a considerable fragment of the H ecale, an idyllic epic, has also been discovered in the Rainer papyri (see Kenyon in Classical Review, November 1893). His Coma Berenices is only known from the celebrated imitation of Catullus. His Aitia (causes) was a collection of elegiac poems in four books, dealing with the foundation of cities, religious ceremonies and other customs. According to Quintilian (Instit. x. 1. 58) he was the chief of the elegiac poets; his elegies were highly esteemed by the Romans, and imitated by Ovid, Catullus and especially Propertius. The extant hymns are extremely learned, and written in a laboured and artificial style. The epigrams, some of the best specimens of their kind, have been incorporated in the Greek Anthology. Art and learning are his chief characteristics, unrelieved by any real poetic genius; in the words of Ovid (Amores, i. 15)

“Quamvis ingenio non valet, arte valet."

Editions.-Hymns, epigrams and fragments (the last collected by Bentley) by J. A. Ernesti (1761), and O. Schneider (1870–1873) (with elaborate indices and ex curs uses); hymns and epigrams, by A. Meineke (1861), and U. Wilamowitz-l/lollendorff (1897). See Neue Bruchstucke aus der Hekale des Kallirnachus, by T. Gomperz (1893); also G. Knaack, Callirnachea (1896); A. Beltrami, Gl' Inni di Callimacho e il Nomo di Terpandro (1896); K. Kuiper, Studia Callimachea (1896); A. Hamette, Les Epigranimes de Callimaque: étude critique et littéraire (Paris, 1907), There are English translations (verse) by W. Dodd (1755) and H. W. Tytler (1793); (prose) by J. Banks (1856). See also Sandys, Hist. of Class. Schol. i. (ed. 1906), p. 122.

CALLINUS of Ephesus, the oldest of the Greek elegiac poets and the creator of the political and warlike elegy. He is supposed to have flourished between the invasion of Asia Minor by the Cimmerii and their expulsion by Alyattes (630–560 B.C.). During his lifetime his own countrymen were also engaged in a life-and death struggle with the Magnesians. These two events give the key to his poetry, in which he endeavours to rouse the indolent Ionians to a sense of patriotism. Only scanty fragments of his poems remain; the longest of these (preserved in Stobaeus, Florilegium, li. 19) has even been ascribed to Tyrtaeus.

Edition of the fragments by N. Bach (1831), and in Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci (1882). On the date of Callinus, see the, histories of Greek literature by Mure and Müller; G. H. Bode, Geschichte der hellenischen Dichtkunst, ii. pt. i. (1838); and G. Geiger, De Callini Aetate (1877), who places him earlier, about 642.

CALLIOPE, the muse of epic poetry, so named from the sweetness of her voice (Gr. κάλλος, beauty; ὄψ, voice). In Hesiod she was the last of the nine sisters, but yet enjoyed a supremacy over the others. (See also Muses, The.)

CALLIRHHOE, in Greek legend, second daughter of the rivergod Achelous and wife of Alcmaeon (q.v.). At her earnest request her husband induced Phegeus, king of Psophis in Arcadia, and the father of his first wife Arsinoé (or Alphesiboea), to hand over to him the necklace and peplus (robe) of Harmonia (q.v.), that he might dedicate them at Delphi to complete the cure of his madness. When Phegeus discovered that they were really meant for Callirrhoe, he gave orders for Alcmaeon to be waylaid and killed, (Apollodorus iii. 7, 2. 5-7; Thucydides ii. 102). Callirrhoe now implored the gods that her two young sons might grow 'to manhood at once and avenge their father's death. This was granted, and her sons Amphoterus and Acarnan slew Phegeus with his two sons, and returning with the necklace and peplus dedicated them at Delphi (Ovid, Metam. ix. 413).

CALLISTHENES (c. 360–328 B.C.), of Olynthus, Greek historian, a relative and pupil of Aristotle, through whose recommendation he was appointed to attend Alexander the Great in his Asiatic expedition. He censured Alexander's adoption of oriental customs, inveighing especially against the servile ceremony of adoration. Having thereby greatly offended the king, he was accused of being privy to a treasonable conspiracy and thrown, into prison, where he died from torture or disease. His melancholy end was commemorated in a special treatise (Καλλισθένης ἤ περί πένθους) by his friend Theophrastus, whose acquaintance he made during' a visit to Athens. Callisthenes wrote an account of Alexander's expedition, a history of 'Greece from the peace of Antalcidas (387) to the Phocian War (357), a history of the Phocian war and other works, all of which have perished. The romantic life of Alexander, the basis of all the Alexander legends of the middle ages, originated during the time of the Ptolemies, but in its present form belongs to the 3rd century A.D. Its author is usually known as pseudo-Callisthenes, although in the Latin translation by Tulius Valerius Alexander Polemius (beginning of the 4th century) it is ascribed to a certain Aesopus; Aristotle, Antisthenes, Onesicritus and Arrian have also been credited with the authorship. There are also Syrian, Armenian and Slavonic versions, in addition to four Greek versions (two in prose and two in verse) in the middle ages (see Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 1897, p. 849). Valerius's translation was completely superseded by that of Leo, arch-priest of Naples in the 10th century, the so-called Historia de Preliis.

See Scriptures rerum Alexandri Magni (by C. W. Müller, in the Didot edition of Arrian, 1846), containing the genuine fragments and the text of the pseudo-Callisthenes, with notes and introduction; A. Westermann, De Callisthene Olynthio et Pseudo-Callisthene Comrnentatio (1838-1842); J. Zacher, Pseudo-Callisthenes (1867); W. Christ, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur (1898), pp. 363, 819; article by Edward Meyer in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopädie; A. Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans (Bruchsal, 1894);, Plutarcb, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab. iv. 10-14; Diog. Laërtius v. 1; Quintus Curtius viii. 5-8; Suidas 3.11. See also Alexander the Great (ad fin.). For the Latin translations see Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist. of Roman Literature (Eng. trans.), § 399; and M. Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Litteratur, iv. 1., p. 43.

CALLISTO, in Greek mythology, an Arcadian nymph, daughter of Lycaon and companion of Artemis. She was transformed into a bear as a penalty for having borne to Zeus a son, Areas, the ancestor of the Arcadians. Hera, Zeus and Artemis are all mentioned as the authors of the transformation.” Areas, when hunting, encountered the bear Callisto, and would have shot her, had not Zeus with swift wind carried up both to the skies, where he placed them as a constellation. In another version, she was