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membrane, as also is the case in the Dibranchiata. The liver has four paired lobes in Nautilus, which open by two bile-ducts into the alimentary canal at the commencement of the intestine. The bile-ducts unite before entering the intestine. In Dibranchiata the two large lobes of the liver are placed antero-dorsally (beneath the shell in Decapoda), and the bile-ducts open into the caecum. Upon the bile-ducts in Dibranchiata are developed yellowish glandular diverticula, which are known as “pancreas,” though neither physiologically nor morphologically is there any ground for considering either the so-called liver or the so-called pancreas as strictly equivalent to the glands so denominated in the Vertebrata. In Nautilus the equivalents of the pancreatic diverticula of the Dibranchs can be traced upon the relatively shorter bile-ducts.

EB1911 Cephalopoda Fig. 9.—Lingual dentition of Cephalopoda.jpg
Fig. 9.—Lingual dentition of Cephalopoda. A, A single row of lingual teeth of
Nautilus pompilius (after Keferstein). B, Two rows of lingual teeth of Sepia
officinalis (after Troschel). C, Lingual teeth of Eledone cirrhosa (after Loven).
EB1911 Cephalopoda Fig. 10.— median antero-posterior section of Nautilus pompilius.jpg
Fig. 10.—Diagram representing a vertical approximately median antero-posterior section of Nautilus pompilius (from a drawing by A. G. Bourne). The parts which are quite black are the cut muscular surfaces of the foot and buccal mass.

a, The shell.

b, The nuchal plate, identical with the nuchal cartilage of Sepia (see fig. 2, b).

c, The integument covering the visceral hump.

d, The mantle flap or skirt in the dorsal region where it rests against the coil of the shell.

e, The inferior margin of the mantle-skirt resting on the lip of the shell represented by the dotted line.

f, The pallial chamber with two of the four gills.

g, The vertically cut median portion of the mid-foot (siphon).

h, The capito-pedal cartilage (see fig. 8).

i, The valve of the siphon.

l, The siphuncular pedicle (cut short).

m, The hood or dorsal enlargement of the annular lobe of the fore-foot.

n, Tentacles of the annular lobe.

p, Tentacles of inner inferior lobe.

q, Buccal membrane.

r, Upper jaw or beak.

s, Lower jaw or beak.

t, Lingual ribbon.

x, The viscero-pericardial sac.

n.c, Nerve-collar.

oe, Oesophagus.

cr, Crop.

gizz, Gizzard.

int, Intestine.

an, Anus.

nept, Aperture of a nephridial sac.

r.e, Renal glandular masses on the walls of the afferent branchial veins (see fig. 11).

a.b.v, Afferent branchial vessel.

e.b.v, Efferent branchial vessel.

vt, Ventricle of the heart.

Posterior salivary glands are not developed in Nautilus, but on each side in the wall of the buccal mass is a gland corresponding to the anterior salivary gland of the Dibranchiata. No ink-sac is present in Nautilus.

EB1911 Cephalopoda Fig. 11.—Relations of the four nephridial sacs, viscero-pericardial sac, heart and large vessels in Nautilus.jpg
Fig. 11.—Diagram to show the relations of the four nephridial sacs, the viscero-pericardial sac, and the heart and large vessels in Nautilus (drawn by A. G. Bourne).

neph, neph, on the right side point to the two nephridia of that side (the two of the opposite side are not lettered)—each is seen to have an independent aperture.

x is the viscero-pericardial sac, the dotted line indicating its backward extension.

visc.per.apert, marks an arrow introduced into the right aperture of the viscero-pericardial sac.

r.e, r.e, point to the glandular enlarged walls of the afferent branchial vessels—two small glandular bodies of the kind are seen to project into each nephridial sac, whilst a larger body of the same kind depends from each of the four branchial afferent vessels into the viscero-pericardial sac.

v.c, Vena-cava.

vent, Ventricle of the heart.

ao, Cephalic aorta (the small abdominal aorta not drawn).

a.b.v, Branchial vessel.

e.v.b, Efferent branchial vessel.

Coelom, Blood-vascular System and Excretory Organs.Nautilus and the other Cephalopoda conform to the general Molluscan characters in regard to these organs. Whilst the general visceral cavity forms a lacunar blood-system or series of narrow spaces, connected with the trunks of a well-developed vascular system, that part of the original coelom surrounding the heart and known as the Molluscan pericardium is shut off from this general blood-lymph system, and communicates, directly in Nautilus, in the rest through the renal sacs, with the exterior. In the Cephalopoda this specialized pericardial cavity is particularly large, and has been recognized as distinct from the blood-carrying spaces, even by anatomists who have not considered the pericardial space of other Mollusca to be thus isolated. The enlarged pericardium, which may even take the form of a pair of sacs, has been variously named, but is best known as the viscero-pericardial sac or chamber. In Nautilus this sac occupies the whole of the postero-dorsal surface and a part of the antero-dorsal (see fig. 10, x), investing the genital and other viscera which lie below it, and having the ventricle of the heart suspended in it. Certain membranes forming incomplete septa, and a curious muscular band—the pallio-cardiac band—traverse the sac. The four branchial afferent veins, which in traversing the walls of the four renal sacs give off, as it were, glandular diverticula into those sacs, also give off at the same points four much larger glandular masses, which hang freely into the viscero-pericardial chamber (fig. 11, r.e). In Nautilus the viscero-pericardial sac opens to the exterior directly by a pair of apertures, one placed close to the right and one close to the left posterior renal aperture (fig. 5, visc. per). This direct opening of the pericardial sac to the exterior is an exception to what occurs in all other Mollusca. In all other Molluscs the pericardial sac opens into the renal organs, and through them or the one renal organ to the exterior. In Nautilus there is no opening from the viscero-pericardial sac into the renal sacs. Therefore the external pore of the viscero-pericardial sac may possibly be regarded as a shifting of the reno-pericardial orifice from the actual wall of the renal sac to a position alongside of its orifice. Parallel cases of such shifting are seen in the varying position of the orifice of the ink-bag in Dibranchiata, and in the orifice of the genital ducts of Mollusca, which in some few cases (e.g. Spondylus) open into the renal organs, whilst in other cases they open close by the side of the renal organs on the surface of the body. The viscero-pericardial sac of the Dibranchs is very large also, and extends into the dorsal region. It varies in